The main objective of this study was to determine if an acute bout of static stretching of the quadriceps muscleaffects the sense of joint position, the threshold to detect passive movement, and the sense of force. Thirty young, healthymen (age : 22.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly divided into two groups. The Stretching Group (n=15) underwentstretching of the dominant quadriceps muscle, which comprised ten passive stretches lasting 30 seconds each, while theControl Group (n=15) remained seated for the same length of time. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was usedto establish intragroup differences over time, and an independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependentvariables between groups at each moment. None of the measurements revealed any significant change between bothgroups in each assessment moment or between moments within groups (p>0.05). This study demonstrated that staticquadriceps muscle stretching has no effect on the sense of knee joint position, threshold to detect passive movement, andforce sense, suggesting that stretching does not have appreciable effect on the spindle firing characteristics and tendonorgans activation.
The Movable Scaffolding System (MSS) is a heavy construction equipment used for casting situ of concrete bridge decks. In the past decades, MSSs have become increasingly complex and industrialized, enlarging its span ranges, incorporating auxiliary elevation machinery and increasing productivity. The tendency nowadays is for strong reutilization and the notion of MSS as a disposable or temporary structure is somehow reductive. The main structure of MSSs may be potentially exposed to fatigue, usually characterized by low number of cycles with significant stress amplitude. Fatigue may be prevented through adequate design; judicious selection of materials; demanding quality control and implementation of robust inspection and maintenance plans.
The quality of tomato fruits is influenced by preharvest factors. Trichoderma are considered biostimulants with potential to improve growth and development in plants, as well as the quality of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of Trichoderma on the quality of tomato fruits at different cluster levels on the same plant in two commercial hybrids using three different substrates in a greenhouse. Six foliar applications of a liquid biological preparation of Trichoderma were performed at a dose of 4 mL L−1 every 15 days after transplanting. The results show that the foliar application of Trichoderma increased the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity of the fruits at different cluster levels, which was mainly due to the decrease in acidity rather than the increase in soluble solids. The decrease in titratable acidity is in accordance with the increase in the pH of the fruits. Trichoderma have a positive effect on titratable acidity, pH and electrical conductivity of fruits. In the Cid hybrid grown in the tezontle substrate, the application of Trichoderma increased the ratio of total soluble solids to titratable acidity. At the same time, sand increased the percentage of juice in the fruits. Foliar application of Trichoderma increases the quality of tomato fruits, and as such, should be considered as a crop management option.