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Open access

Fernando Claver, Ruth Jiménez, Alexander Gil-Arias, Alberto Moreno and M. Perla Moreno

Abstract

This study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2002) was aimed to determine the influence of a cognitive-motivational intervention program, to improve the basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment, in youth volleyball players. Participants included 34 Under-19 female volleyball players. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with an experimental group (n = 16; M = 17.45; SD = .45) and a control group (n = 18; M = 16.64; SD = .70). The experimental group followed a multidimensional intervention program comprised of 24 sessions held over three months (two training sessions per week). It was based on two strategies: giving athletes the possibility of choice in specific training tasks (proposing training situations with several action alternatives) and questioning (cognitively involving players through tactical questions). A repeated-measures MANOVA 2 (group: experimental and control) x 2 (time: pre-test and post-test) was used to analyse the effect of Group x Time interaction. The results of the inter-group analysis showed significant differences in the post-test measurement between the experimental group and the control group (in favour of the experimental group) in the variables: basic psychological need satisfaction of autonomy and competence, autonomous motivation, procedural knowledge, perceived performance and sport commitment. Given the relevance of the cognitive-motivational processes, not only for performance but also for sport commitment, this intervention has important implications for sport coaching.

Open access

Jara González-Silva, Alberto Moreno Domínguez, Carmen Fernández-Echeverría, Fernando Claver Rabaz and M. Perla Moreno Arroyo

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI) in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction), reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy) and setting variables (a setter‘s position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set’s area and tempo of a set). Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set’s area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages.

Open access

Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Luis García-González, David Pizarro and Fernando Del Villar

Abstract

The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Dec)according to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size) revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, “A” (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473) and “B” (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657). However, in the lower level teams, “C and subsequent”, this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

Open access

Alba Práxedes, Fernando Del Villar, David Pizarro and Alberto Moreno

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a teaching program, based on Non-Linear Pedagogy, on decision-making and performance in youth soccer players as a function of the type of play action. Our participants were 19 players from the U12 age category. The teaching program, which was based on the application of modified games characterized by a numerical superiority in attack, was used for 14 training sessions. This program was conducted in two phases (preparation-for-intervention and intervention). Decision-making and execution for pass and dribbling actions were evaluated through the Game Performance Evaluation Tool. The results showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in decision-making (p < .000) and the execution of passes (p = .003) after the intervention. However, such differences were not found for dribbling (decision-making, p = .402 and execution, p = .143). These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this type of program for teaching actions with a high tactical component, such as the pass, and a different approach must be considered in actions with a high technical component, such as dribbling. It is necessary to continue developing studies in this line to clarify these issues.

Open access

Marcos Quiñones-Grueiro, Cristina Verde, Alberto Prieto-Moreno and Orestes Llanes-Santiago

Abstract

The water loss detection and location problem has received great attention in recent years. In particular, data-driven methods have shown very promising results mainly because they can deal with uncertain data and the variability of models better than model-based methods. The main contribution of this work is an unsupervised approach to leak detection and location in water distribution networks. This approach is based on a zone division of the network, and it only requires data from a normal operation scenario of the pipe network. The proposition combines a periodic transformation and a data vector extension together with principal component analysis of leak detection. A reconstruction-based contribution index is used for determining the leak zone location. The Hanoi distribution network is employed as the case study for illustrating the feasibility of the proposal. Single leaks are emulated with varying outflow magnitudes at all nodes that represent less than 2.5% of the total demand of the network and between 3% and 25% of the node’s demand. All leaks can be detected within the time interval of a day, and the average classification rate obtained is 85.28% by using only data from three pressure sensors.

Open access

Rubén Bueno-Marí, Alberto Bernués-Bañeres, Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo, Josefa Moreno-Marí and Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

ABSTRACT

Several insecticides (including different active substances and formulations) were applied to sewer shafts to control Periplaneta americana (LINNAEUS, 1758) populations in Valencia (eastern Spain). Results show that the best products for cockroach control were the paints (with and without insecticide), which provided an optimal reduction of P. americana populations for up to three months (P < 0.001). Therefore, it is important to note that the reduction of cockroach populations as well as the persistence of the insecticide effect in sewers was similar in both types of paints. A product combining two pyrethroids (Tetramethrin and Alfacipermetrin) and piperonyl butoxide also gave excellent results with cockroach control during one month. Two organophosphate insecticides (Clorpyrifos and Diazinon) significantly reduced cockroaches for only one week. Finally, our work indicates that the Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) we tested are not recommendable active substances for the control of P. americana in sewers.

Open access

Juan Alberto Rodríguez-Velázquez, Erick David Rodríguez-Bazan and Alejandro Estrada-Moreno

Abstract

In this paper we obtain closed formulae for several parameters of generalized Sierpiński graphs S(G, t) in terms of parameters of the base graph G. In particular, we focus on the chromatic, vertex cover, clique and domination numbers.

Open access

Katrin Casel, Alejandro Estrada-Moreno, Henning Fernau and Juan Alberto Rodríguez-Velázquez

Abstract

A vertex vV (G) is said to distinguish two vertices x, yV (G) of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set WV (G) is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, yV (G), there exists some vertex wW − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every xV (G)−W and yW, there exists some wW −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a) Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b) We explore the (tight) relation to independent 2-domination. (c) We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d) For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency) metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised) fans and wheels. (e) We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency) metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f) The weak total (adjacency) dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.