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Open access

Ali Akbar Ehsanpour and Zeynab Nejati

Abstract

Potato tissue culture is sensitive to ethylene accumulation in the culture vessel. Ag inhibits ethylene action but no information on nanosilver application in potato tissue culture has been published so far. In our study, potato cv. White Desiree was treated with nanosilver (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 ppm) in vitro. Leaf surface was increased, while stem length and root length decreased. Nanosilver caused also a decrease in the number of isolated protoplasts and in the viability of isolated protoplasts when applied either directly or indirectly.

Open access

Azam Taheri Shahrestani, Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour, Ali Akbar Ebadie and Seyed Ali Elahinia

Abstract

Genetic variation in 60 isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease, investigated using random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. All of 60 strains isolated and characterized through 2006-2008 in Guilan province. Three populations: a) isolates from nursery, b) isolates from fi eld, and c) isolates from panicle studied. Eight decamer primers of RAPD amplifi ed 187 polymorphic bands. The largest and smallest fragments generated by 80.7 and OPA10 primers, respectively. The minimum amount of polymorphic information content was related to OPA12 primer (0.36) and the maximum amount of that was related to OPA10 primer (0.44). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of data from RAPD analysis showed that the genetic variation within Xoo populations was greater than between populations. The similarity matrix conducted by Simple Matching coeffi cient and cluster analysis made by unweighted pair group method (UPGMA) with NTSYS-pc soft ware. At a similarity index of 0.6 the isolates were grouped into 3 clusters. These results revealed that the RAPD markers used in this study could differentiate nursery and fi eld isolates from each other.

Open access

Ali Akbar Malekirad, Mahya Faghih, Mansuoreh Mirabdollahi, Mahdi Kiani, Arezoo Fathi and Mohammad Abdollahi

About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase-like organophosphates (OPs). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed farmers in terms of neurocognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and haematological factors. The exposed group was compared to 187 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matching controls. Neurocognitive impairment was measured using the Subjective Neurocognition Inventory (SNI) and mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The subjects were also tested for fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TG), creatinine, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The exposed farmers showed higher FBG (p<0.001), BUN (p=0.007), CL (p<0.001), oral GTT (p<0.001), and lower AST (p<0.001), ALP (p<0.001), and creatinine (p=0.004) than controls. The rates of anxiety/ insomnia and severe depression were also significantly higher in the farmers than in controls (p=0.015 and p<0.001, respectively). Meanwhile, the rate of social dysfunction was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001). Disorders affecting psychomotor speed, selective attention, divided attention, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, prospective memory, spatial functioning, and initiative/energy were all lower in the farmers (p<0.001). Farmers showed clinical symptoms eczema, saliva secretion, fatigue, headache, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, superior distal muscle weakness, inferior distal muscle weakness, inferior proximal muscle weakness, breath muscle weakness, hand tingling, foot tingling, epiphoria, polyuria, miosis, dyspnoea, bradycardia, and rhinorrhoea, which all significantly correlated with the number of working years. These findings indicate that farmers who work with OPs are prone to neuropsychological disorders and diabetes.

Open access

Shamila Yadolahi Zadeh, Ali Akbar Ramin and Bahram Baninasab

Summary

This study was conducted in order to determine the appropriate treatment for breaking dormancy and the effect of salinity on seed germination of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus), in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, five levels of gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg×L−1) with four levels of cold moist stratification period of seeds at 5°C (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) were launched. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. The statistical analysis showed that concentration of 250 mg×L−1 GA3 with 10 days of cold moist chilling significantly increased the percentage of germination of normal seedlings and reduced the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, the seeds were chilled for 10 days at 5°C and half of them treated with 250 mg×L−1 GA3 for 24 hours. The seeds treated with GA3, and those non-treated were subjected to NaCl for salinity stress. The experiment was conducted using five salinity levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl) in four replications in a completely randomized design. The results showed that purple coneflower is highly sensitive to salinity in the germination stage. The results also showed that by increasing salinity levels, the percentage of germination and normal seedlings significantly decreased and the mean time to germination increased, compared to the control treatment. But the seeds treated with GA3 showed higher viability and better performance under salinity stress condition.

Open access

Ali Akbar Malekirad, Razieh Kalantari-Dehaghi and Mohammad Abdollahi

Abstract

The aim of this comparative cross-sectional study was to assess neurocognitive impairment, haematological findings, and clinical symptoms of lead exposure among 316 male battery plant workers aged between 20 and 61 years. Compared to 123 matched controls (matching in age and years of work), the exposed workers showed significantly higher mean blood lead level (BLL) and lower haematocrit, haemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Mean BLL significantly correlated with clinical symptoms such as nocturia, increased urination frequency, oedema, drop in deep tendon reflex, concentration impairment, agitation, headache, depression, abdominal pain, palpitation, fatigue, and diminished sex drive. Workers with clinical disorders had higher BLL and lower haematological parameters. These findings warn that silent toxicological problems caused by lead might go unnoticed by health professionals.

Open access

Amin Shirvani, Farzad Moradi and Ali Akbar Moosavi

Abstract

Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

Open access

Muhammad Nur Ali Akbar and Septian Tri Nugraha

Abstract

The petrophysical analysis is the crucial task for evaluating the quality of unconventional organic-rich shale and tight gas reservoirs. The presence of organic matter and the ultra-tight with over complex pore system have remained a lack of understanding of how to evaluate the extensive parameters of porosity considering organic content, gas saturation, organic richness, brittleness index, and sweet spot interval by only using conventional log. Therefore, this study offers effectively applied techniques and better analysis for interpreting these parameters by maximizing and integrating geological, geochemical, rock mechanical and engineering data.

In general, the field data used in this study are from the first dedicated well for source rock exploration in the North Sumatra Basin, Indonesia. The developed method was derived by using conventional log. All interpretation results were validated by laboratory data measurements of routine and special core analysis, petrography, total organic carbon (TOC) and organic maturation, and brittleness index (BI) calculation. Moreover, the high quality of NMR log data was used as well to ensure our developed techniques present good estimations. Briefly about the methods, we started to determine the total and effective porosity based on the density log by including the presence of organic matter and multi-mineral analysis in these estimations. Then, we used the revised water saturation-TOC of water saturation while the TOC was predicted in advance by averaging three results from the correlation of TOC-Density, modified CARBOLOG and Passey’s ΔlogR methods. Equally important, in order to obtain the reliable gas saturation prediction, we used saturation exponent (n), cementation factor (m), and the tortuosity factor (a) parameters which obtained from laboratory measurement of formation resistivity factor and resistivity index (FFRI). In addition, the brittleness index was predicted based on sonic log data.

Finally, all parameters needed for determining gas shale sweet spot have been made. Then, we developed a way to evaluate the sweet spot interval by using K-mean clustering. In conclusion, this clustering result properly follows the shale quality index parameters which consist of organic richness and maturation, brittleness index, the storage capacity of porosity and gas saturation. This study shows that these petrophysical applied techniques leads us to interpret the best position of shale interval to be developed with a simple, fast, and accurate prediction way. Furthermore, as a novelty, this method can be used as rock typing method and obviously can reduce uncertainty and risks in organic-rich shale exploration.

Open access

Mona Fathi, Sohrab Kazemi, Farbod Zahedi, Mohamad Reza Shiran and Ali Akbar Moghadamnia

Abstract

A wide variety of acetaminophen dosage forms have been administered to relieve mild to moderate pain and fever, so far. The purpose of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability in healthy volunteers, of three of these dosage forms. We included healthy volunteers in our study and divided replace with placed them into three groups: tablet, capsule and effervescent. Each dosage form contained 500 mg of acetaminophen as active material. Blood samples were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8-hour intervals after receiving the dose. Acetaminophen blood levels were measured using HPLC method. Data were fit in a “one-compartment PK model”, using P-Pharm 1.5 software and analyzed under statistical tests. The maximum concentrations of acetaminophen in blood samples were measured at 1h after taking the drug (6.61±3.19 μg/ml, 11.29±3.94 μg/ml and 15.25±2.54 μg/ml in groups receiving capsule, tablet and effervescent, respectively). Pharmacokinetic (PK) data analysis & modeling from the three groups showed that the half-life of acetaminophen was 140.72 min in the tablet group, 140.29 min in capsule and 132.08 min in effervescent. The area under the blood levels curve were 47.04, 40.62 and 53.11 μgmin/ml, in tablet, capsule, and effervescent groups, respectively. Statistically significant differences in PK parameters were recorded as the study replace with we compared effervescent with tablets and capsule dosage forms (p < 0.05). According to the results, the effervescent form creates better PK parameters compared with tablet and capsule forms, therefore, it is suggested replace with we suggested that this form should be administer in cases of pain and fever to achieve quick drug efficacy.

Open access

Amin Sadeghi, Ali-Akbar Mozafari, Reza Bahmani and Kamran Shokri

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of these elements: Hg, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mn, Li, As, Na and K in the bodies of bees. Honeybee samples were randomly collected from apiaries located in four counties of the province of Kurdistan. The four counties were: Marivan, Bijar, Kamyaran and Ghorveh. The data obtained from this study showed that K had the highest concentration, followed by Na, Ca, Hg, Ba, Fe, Mn, Li and As. From among all the sites, there were no significant differences recorded between the concentrations of the different metals. The results did show that three minerals groups were able to be differentiated: elements that were very abundant, elements in a medium concentration, and trace elements. The first group consisted of K and Na, with a range from 41.857 to 47.871, and 12.653 to 16.183 ppm, respectively. The second mineral group was composed of Ca, Hg, Ba, and Fe, where Ca was the most abundant element (with a range of 9.077 to 10.058 ppm), followed by Hg (1.12-4.786 ppm), Ba (2.881-3.481 ppm), and Fe (1.050-1.727 ppm). The third mineral group was composed of Mn, Li and As. They ranged from 0.262 to -0.399, and from 0.043 to 0.101, and from 0.017 to 0.068 ppm, respectively.

Open access

Afshin Shafaghi, Faeze Gharibpoor, Zahra Mahdipour and Ali Akbar Samadani

Abstract

Introduction: Management of Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is of great importance. In this way, we aimed to evaluate the performance of three well known scoring systems of AIMS65, Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) and Full Rockall Score (FRS) in predicting adverse outcomes in patients with UGIB as well as their ability in identifying low risk patients for outpatient management. We also aimed to assess whether changing Albumin cutoff in AIMS65 and addition of Albumin to GBS, add predictive value to these scores.

Methods: This was a retrospective study on adult patients who were admitted to Razi hospital (Rasht, Iran) with diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding between March 21, 2013 and March 21, 2017. Patients who didn’t undergo endoscopy nor had incomplete medical data were excluded. Initially, we calculated three score systems of AIMS65, GBS and FRS for each patient by using initial Vital signs and lab data. Secondary, we modified AIMS65 and GBS by changing Albumin threshold from <3.5 to <3.0 in AIMS65 and addition of Albumin to GBS, respectively. Primary outcomes were defined as in hospital mortality, 30-day rebleeding, need for blood transfusion and endoscopic therapy. Secondary outcome was defined as composition of primary outcomes excluding need for blood transfusion. We used AUROC to assess predictive accuracy of risk scores in primary and secondary outcomes. For Albumin-GBS model, the AUROC was only calculated for predicting mortality and secondary outcome. The negative predictive value for AIMS65, GBS and modified AIMS65 was then calculated.

Result: Of 563 patients, 3% died in hospital, 69.4% needed blood transfusion, 13.1% needed endoscopic therapy and 3% had 30-day rebleeding. The leading cause of UGIB was Erosive Disease. In predicting composite of adverse outcomes all scores had statistically significant accuracy with highest AUROC for Albumin-GBS. However, in predicting in hospital mortality, only albumin-GBS, modified AIMS65 and AIMS65 had acceptable accuracy. Interestingly, Albumin, alone, had higher predictive accuracy than other original risk scores. None of the four scores could predict 30-day rebleeding accurately; on the contrary, their accuracy in predicting need for blood transfusion was high enough. The negative predictive value for GBS was 96.6% in score of≤2 and 85.7% and 90.2% in score of zero in AIMS65 and modified AIMS65, respectively.

Conclusion: Neither of risk scores was highly accurate as a prognostic factor in our population; however, modified AIMS65 and Albumin-GBS may be optimal choice in evaluating risk of mortality and general assessment. In identifying patient for safe discharge, GBS≤2 seemed to be advisable choice.