The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the pathological personality traits in predicting suicidal ideation, especially in combination with other risk factors, such as the level of depression, prior attempts of suicide, low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-social support interaction, both in general and in psychiatric inpatient samples. Data were analysed within two samples: non-clinical general sample (n = 461) and psychiatric inpatient sample (n = 131). Latvian Clinical Personality Inventory (LCPI) was used as the instrument for data collection. LCPI is a comprehensive multi-scale multi-item inventory, which consists of nine clinical scales (including Depression Symptom Scale), 33 pathological personality scales, five functioning scales, and five additional scales, including a Suicidal Ideation Scale, Low Self-esteem Scale and Lack of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that several facet-level pathological personality traits (depressivity, self-harm, dissociation proneness, submissiveness, and suspiciousness) added significant incremental variance to the prediction of suicidal ideation above and beyond the well-known main risk factors of suicidal ideation, such as depression and prior suicide attempt. This effect remained stable even after taking into account additional interpersonal risk factors, such as low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-perceived social support interaction. The incremental effect of personality traits was medium in the psychiatric inpatient sample and small in the general sample. Findings of the study may assist in early screening for persons with suicide risk and for developing prevention programmes in different settings.
Kristīne Šneidere, Nourah Alruwais, Nicholas G. Dowell, Voldemārs Arnis, Jeļena Harlamova, Kārlis Kupčs, Iveta Mintāle, Zane Ulmane, Andra Vanaga, Jeremy C. Young, Jennifer Rusted and Ainārs Stepens
Due to increasing changes in demographics, maintaining cognitive functioning later in life has become both economic and social concerns, and thus finding a cost-effective solution is one of the priorities in research. Factors like physical and intellectual activities have been associated with better cognitive performance in later life. While several studies have considered the impact of short-term physical activity interventions on cognitive functioning, retrospective research focusing on life-time physical activity experience has been sparse. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between memory performance and whole brain matter integrity in seniors with different regular life-long physical activity experience. Fifty-three Latvian seniors aged 65–85 (M = 72.25, SD = 5.03, 83% female) with no self-reported chronic disease participated in the study. Measures of memory, physical activity and whole brain matter integrity were obtained and analysed. The obtained results indicated no significant relationship between physical activity experience and short and long-term memory and whole brain matter integrity; however, brain matter integrity was significantly correlated with demographic factors like age and education. These results might be related to inadequate physical activity measures, as well as unequal physical activity experience in participants. In the future, more detailed assessment of physical activity experience should be considered.