The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.
This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.
Material and Methods
Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.
Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.
The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.