A one-day-old female Holstein calf was presented with subcutaneous masses spread over the whole body. Macroscopically, the masses were firm in touch, greyish-white in colour, 0.5-2 cm in diameter range. Histopathological examination confirmed the cutaneous Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE). Microscopic examination of the tumor revealed sheets of spindled endothelial cells forming vascular slits. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells and capillaries gave strongly positive reaction for CD31 while vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were negative. In this case, macroscopical, detailed histhopathological and immunohistochemical findings of congenital KHE reported firstly in a newborn calf.
Some of the genotoxic/carcinogenic substances or metabolites in cigarette smoke are capable of passing through the placenta and harming a newborn’s health. Smoking is also known as a factor in the formation of oxidative damage and the main mechanism involved in the carcinogenic process. Predetermining this genotoxic risk can be successfully achieved by measuring certain parameters of oxidative stress. The comet assay is considered an important biomarker for the evaluation of genotoxic substances and is effective for detecting DNA damage caused by smoking. This study examined third trimester bloods and the cord blood of 28 actively smoking and 22 non-smoking mothers in terms of DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), plasma nitrite/nitrates (NO2 -/NO3 -), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), Cu, and Zn levels were measured as indicators of oxidative damage. There were no significant increases in DNA damage of the actively smoking pregnant group in comparison with the non-smoking pregnant group, either in the third trimester or cord blood. Oxidative stress parameters of smoker and non-smoker groups were statistically different for MDA (p<0.05), CuZn-SOD (p<0.01), Se-GPx (p<0.05) values while the difference was not significant for NO2 -/NO3 -, CAT, Zn, and Cu values. The same values were also investigated in cord blood, and only NO2/NO3 -(p<0.01), Se-GPx (p<0.01 and CAT (p<0.001) values were found statistically different. Smoking mothers may have been exposed to more oxidative stress than non-smoking mothers.
Background. Oxidative stress may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) etiopathogenesis. The thiol group is a very strong antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of oxidative stress in patients with RA by evaluating thiol/disulfide homeostasis.
Material and methods. A total of 50 female RA patients and 50 healthy female controls were included in this study. Thiol and disulfide values were calculated utilizing novel methods.
Results. Native thiol (p < 0.001) and total thiol (p < 0.001) levels of RA patients were significantly lower compared to values in the control group. However, the disulfide (p < 0.001) levels of RA patients were strongly higher than in healthy individuals. A negative correlation was found between thiol and disease activity score-28 among the patients, whereas a positive correlation was found between disulfide and disease activity score-28 among the patients.
Conclusion. We found that the thiol–disulfide rate deteriorated in RA patients, with the proportion of disulfide increasing. There is a strong correlation between the decrease in thiol levels, increase in disulfide levels and the disease activity scores.