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Open access

Mansour S. Abdul Galil and Riyad Ahmed Al Okab

Abstract

Two new rapid, accurate, sensitive, reproducible and economical spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of hexavalent chromium in bulk and in environmental samples like, water and soil using two new electrophilic coupling spectrophotometric reagents, 2-amino-2′,5-dichlorobenzophenone (MCB) and 2-amino-5-chloro-2'-fluorobenzophenone (MFB) and first-ever use phenoxazine (PNZ). Both methods are based on the oxidation of (MCB) or (MFB) by chromium(VI) in hydrochloric acid medium and coupling with PNZ to yield red colored, which are stable for about 12 h and have an absorbance maximum 520 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed for chromium(VI) in the concentration ranges 0.15-1.20 μg mL-1 and 0.17-1.41 μg mL- 1 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters were established to maximize sensitivity of these methods. Interference by various non-target ions was also investigated. The performance of these methods was further evaluated by recovery tests applying standard addition method, which indicated that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the standard reference spectrophotometric method.

Open access

Ashraf ElBadry, Nabil Mansour and Ahmed Abdelkhalek

Abstract

Background: The hemifacial spasm (HFS) defined as involuntary intermittent twitching of the muscles of the face (usually unilateral). The spasms characteristically begin around the eye and then extend to affect other muscles of the ipsilateral face. It is caused by vascular element compressing the facial nerve that may be either the anterior or the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries in most cases. Objective of our work: to describe the operative technique (pearls and common mistakes), the efficacy and morbidity of microvascular decompression technique for hemifacial spasm through mini craniotomy, determine the prognostic factors affecting success rate of the surgery. Material & method: A retrospective study of 23 cases of hemifacial spasm treated by mini craniotomy retro sigmoid approach and microvascular decompression at neurosurgery dept., Mansoura University Hospital in last 10 years was investigated. This include Epidemiological, clinical and imaging details, selected treatment options and patients’ outcome. Results: complete resolving of symptoms was conducted in 19 cases 82.6% while reoperated in 2 cases with improvement in one case. Facial palsy appeared postoperative in 6 cases 4 of them improved in 3 months, transient hearing loss in 4 cases17.4% which improved later, cerebrospinal fluid leak appeared in 3 cases 13% which managed conservatively. Conclusions: MVD relieves symptoms of HFS in about 80% of patients while recurrence still in low percentage. The study reported low permanent Complications and generally transient.

Open access

Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Tamer Ahmed Ismail and Ahmed Abdel-Khalik Mansour

Abstract

Haptoglobin (Hp) is a protein secreted mainly from the liver to bind hemoglobin and thus prevents iron loss and oxidative stress. Bovine Hp in blood increases during diseases such as mastitis and fatty liver syndrome. This study was conducted to examine the expression and regulation of Hp in differentiated mature bovine adipocytes. Hp expression was confirmed in various tissues and in mature adipocytes but not in the stromal vascular cell fraction using qualitative RT -PCR and quantitative northern blot analysis, respectively. Intravenous injection of Holstein cows with recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNF-α) and interferon gamma (rbIFN-γ) significantly increased the serum concentrations of Hp. When mature differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with short chain fatty acids, cytokines and hormones, Hp expression was altered. Acetate, butyrate and propionate at a dose of 1 mM significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α also significantly up-regulated Hp mRNA abundance, while troglitazone and norepinephrine down-regulated it. Our study confirmed expression of Hp in differentiated mature adipocytes and identified LPS, TNF-α, short chain fatty acids, as regulators of Hp mRNA expression in these cells.

Open access

Ahmed M. Maghraby, A. Mansour and A. A. Abdel-Fattah

Abstract

Taurine/EPR rods (3 × 10 mm) have been prepared by a simple technique in the laboratory where taurine powder was mixed with a molten mixture of paraffin wax and an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer. The binding mixture EVA/Paraffin does not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation. The rods show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. An EPR investigation of radiation induced radicals in taurine rods revealed that there are two types of radicals produced after exposure to gamma radiation (60Co). EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed - also the microwave power saturation and modulation amplitude were studied and optimized. Response of taurine to different radiation doses (1.5-100 kGy) was studied and found to follow a linear relationship up to 100 kGy. Radiation induced radicals in taurine persists and showed a noticeable stability over 94 days following irradiation. Uncertainities associated with the evaluation of radiation doses using taurine dosimeters were discussed and tabulated. It was found that taurine possesses good dosimetric properties using EPR spectroscopy in high doses in addition to its simple spectrum.

Open access

Omar Mohamed, Ahmed Mansour, Sameh S. Tahoun, Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Muhammad Ali Mekkey

Abstract

The current study presents a fully qualitative palynological investigation carried out on the Raha Formation encountered from three wells in the Bakr Oil Field of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Around 30 species of pteridophytic spores, 26 species of angiosperm pollen, 24 species of gymnosperm pollen and 27 species of dinoflagellate cysts have been recorded. However, achritarchs, microforaminiferal test linings and freshwater algae are impoverished and sparsely documented throughout the Raha Formation. Two palynozones have been identified based on some stratigraphically significant pollen and spores, arranged from youngest to oldest: (1) Palynozone I (Classopollis brasiliensis–Tricolpites sagax Assemblage Zone) of late Cenomanian age; (2) Palynozone II (Afropollis jardinus–Crybelosporites pannuceus Assemblage Zone) of early-middle Cenomanian age. The distribution and ecological affiliation of specific palynomorph species, as well as various palynofacies parameters, are interpreted. A shallow marine environment from supratidal to distal inner neritic under proximal suboxic–anoxic to dysoxic–anoxic shelf conditions is reconstructed. Palaeobiogeographically, the absence of elaters from the recovered taxa is interpreted in terms of minor floral variation. This may be attributed to climatic and/or an environment-controlled niche establishment, which possibly was shaped by the existence of a physical barrier hindering the distribution of such type of elaterate parent plants.

Open access

A. Ali, G. Elmowalid, M. Abdel-Glil, T. Sharafeldin, F. Abdallah, S. Mansour, A. Nagy, B. Ahmed and M. Abdelmoneim

Abstract

Epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) virus H5N1 have been frequently reported in Egypt during the last nine years. Here we investigate the involvement of AI H5N1 in outbreaks of acute respiratory disease that occurred in several commercial chicken farms in Egypt in 2011, and we describe to the pathology caused by the virus in the course of the outbreak.

Twenty-one chicken farms with history of acute respiratory symptoms and high mortalities were screened for AI H5N1. Virus identification was based on hemagglutination inhibition test, and PCR detection and sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Virus distribution was determined by immunohistochemical staining of AI antigens in organs of infected birds. Standard H&E staining was performed for histological examination of affected organs.

Eighty-one % of the examined birds, representing 100% of the screened farms, were positive for AI H5N1 virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolated virus reveals its affiliation to clade 2.2.1. Viral antigens were localized in the endothelial cells of the heart, liver, lungs and skin, where pathological lesions including congestion, hemorrhages, multifocal inflammation and necrosis were concurrently observed. According to the pattern of the viral antigen and lesion distribution in the visceral organs, we suggest cardiovascular and circulatory failures as the probable cause of death during these outbreaks. In conclusion, the present study further confirms the epidemic status of AI H5N1 virus in Egypt and reveals the highly pathogenic nature of the local isolates.

Open access

Galila Mokhtar, Amal El-Beshlawy, Mohssen El Alfy, Magdy El Ekiaby, Naglaa Omar, Khaled Abd El-Azim Eid, Hoda Hassab, Osama El Safy, Ahmed Mansour, Rasha El Ashry, Naglaa Shaheen and Azza Abdel Gawad

Abstract

These guidelines have been developed by an expert panel of haemophilia treaters to support the appropriate management of people with haemophilia in Egypt. Although the guidelines are based primarily on the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) Guidelines for the Management of Hemophilia, they aim to address unmet needs and local requirements in the Egyptian setting.