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Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem Ali, Adel Ahmed Ali and Ibrahim Abdullah Maghrabi

Abstract

This study addressed the possibility of forming of co-amorphous systems between clozapine (CZ) and various carboxylic acid plasticizers (CAPs). The aim was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine. Co-amorphous dispersions were prepared using modified solvent evaporation methodology at drug/plasticizer stoichiometric ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. Solid state characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infra red spectroscopy. Highly soluble homogeneous co-amorphous dispersions were formed between clozapine and CAPs via hydrogen bonding. The co-amorphous dispersions formed with tartaric acid (1:2) showed the highest dissolution percentage (> 95 % in 20 minutes) compared to pure crystalline CZ (56 %). Highly stable solutions were obtained from co-amorphous CZ-citric and CZ-tartaric acid at 1:1.5 molar ratio. The prepared dispersions suggest the possibility of peroral or sublingual administration of highly soluble clozapine at a reduced dose with the great chance to bypass the first pass metabolism.

Open access

Waheed Ali Umrani, Rosli Mahmood and Umair Ahmed

Abstract

The ground aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual factors of corporate entrepreneurship and business performance. This investigation was expected to bring in un-revealed results as the past literature does not provide any sufficient evidence for the proposed model. The study used survey method to collect data from the big five banks in Pakistan. For this reason a total of 256 responses were collected from the bank branch managers on the topic, using stratified random sampling technique. Through using PLS structural Equation Modeling, the study employed the use of SmartPLS 3.0 for executing tests pertaining to reliability and validity, this was ensured by evaluating measurement model. Next, the study assessed structure model, under which the research has revealed that out of the 5 mentioned dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship only three have resulted in a significant relationship with business performance; this was followed by assessment of r-squared values and predictive relevance of the model keeping in view the recommendations from the popular literature. Implications for further research and management professionals are mentioned in detail.

Open access

Ahmed Ali and Michael Wagreich

Abstract

Mineralogical, major, minor, REE and trace element analyses of rock samples were performed on Middle Miocene limestones (Leitha limestones, Badenian) collected from four localities from Austria (Mannersdorf, Wöllersdorf, Kummer and Rosenberg quarries) and the Fertőrákos quarry in Hungary. Impure to pure limestones (i.e. limited by Al2O3 contents above or below 0.43 wt. %) were tested to evaluate the applicability of various geochemical proxies and indices in regard to provenance and palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Pure and impure limestones from Mannersdorf and Wöllersdorf (southern Vienna Basin) show signs of detrital input (REEs = 27.6 ± 9.8 ppm, Ce anomaly = 0.95 ± 0.1 and the presence of quartz, muscovite and clay minerals in impure limestones) and diagenetic influence (low contents of, e.g., Sr = 221 ± 49 ppm, Na is not detected, Ba = 15.6 ± 8.8 ppm in pure limestones). Thus, in both limestones the reconstruction of original sedimentary palaeoenvironments by geochemistry is hampered. The Kummer and Fertőrákos (Eisenstadt–Sopron Basin) comprise pure limestones (e.g., averages Sr = 571 ± 139 ppm, Na = 213 ± 56 ppm, Ba = 21 ± 4 ppm, REEs = 16 ± 3 ppm and Ce anomaly = 0.62 ± 0.05 and composed predominantly of calcite) exhibiting negligible diagenesis. Deposition under a shallow-water, well oxygenated to intermittent dysoxic marine environment can be reconstructed. Pure to impure limestones at Rosenberg–Retznei (Styrian Basin) are affected to some extent by detrital input and volcano-siliciclastic admixture. The Leitha limestones at Rosenberg have the least diagenetic influence among the studied localities (i.e. averages Sr = 1271 ± 261 ppm, Na = 315 ± 195 ppm, Ba = 32 ± 15 ppm, REEs = 9.8 ± 4.2 ppm and Ce anomaly = 0.77 ± 0.1 and consist of calcite, minor dolomite and quartz). The siliciclastic sources are characterized by immobile elemental ratios (i.e. La/Sc and Th/Co) which apply not only for the siliciclastics, but also for marls and impure limestones. At Mannersdorf the detrital input source varies between intermediate to silicic igneous rocks, while in Kummer and Rosenberg the source is solely silicic igneous rocks. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) is only applicable in the shale-contaminated impure limestones. CIA values of the Leitha limestones from Mannersdorf indicate a gradual transition from warm to temperate palaeoclimate within the limestone succession of the Badenian.

Open access

Ahmed Qaddus, Shahzad Hassan and Abid Ali Minhas

Abstract

Recently, the need for user data rate traffic has increased for running high-bandwidth applications. Therefore, the way forward lies in 5G heterogeneous cellular networks. The 5G network is comprised of two network hierarchies. As the first hierarchy, there are MBSs with large macro cells for macro users. As the second hierarchy, there are FBSs referred to as small cells for femto users. The 5G networks encourage the use of large macro and small cells for efficient utilisation and distribution of channel resources. In this study, the authors have proposed an efficient RF channel distribution mechanism on the basis of the current SINR levels of FUEs and MUEs. On the basis of the users’ present SINR levels, the channels will be allocated by the central MBS to MUEs and FUEs via FBSs. The major obstacle in RF channel allocation to FUEs and MUEs is cross-tier interference at the downlink channel at the MUEs and FUEs from the transmitted signals of MBSs and FBSs. In this study, an efficient RF channel allocation scheme is proposed on the basis of channel modelling constraints, which will minimise the cross-tier interference at the downlink channel at the MUEs and FUEs during RF channel allocation to FUEs and MUEs present in the same coverage area

Open access

Ahmed Ali Basfar, Majid Muneer and Omar Ahmed Alsager

Abstract

Chlorophenols are compounds with high toxicity, poor biodegradability, and carcinogenic and recalcitrant properties. This work studies, for the first time, the destruction and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in water using 60Co gamma radiation under different conditions including varied radiation doses, addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and varied pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC) confirmed a successful degradation of 2-CP to primarily yield phenol molecules and chloride anions. A radiation dose as low as 25 kGy achieved approximately 90% removal of 50–150 ppm of 2-CP in neutral water. However, the addition of a strong oxidizer such as H2O2 to 2-CP solutions reduced the required dose to achieve 90% removal to at least 1.3-fold. The reduction in radiation doses was also observed in acidic and alkaline media, reducing the required doses of 90% removal to at least 0.4-fold. It was imperative to study the toxicity levels of the oxidation by-products to provide directions for the potential applicability of this technology in water treatment. Toxicology Microtox® bioassay indicated a significant reduction in the toxicity of the degradation by-products and the detoxification was further enhanced by the addition of H2O2 and changing the pH to more acidic or alkaline conditions. These findings will contribute to the knowledge of the removal and detoxification of such challenging environmental contaminant and could be potentially applied to other biologically resistant compounds.

Open access

Ahmed Tagar and Jan Adamowski

Abstract

Arid areas are particularly susceptible to soil erosion due to long dry periods and sudden heavy downpours. This study investigates the aggregate size distribution and aggregate stability of twelve tilled fallow areas of Hyderabad district, Sindh, Pakistan. This study determined aggregate size distribution by dry sieving to evaluate the seedbed condition and aggregate stability using wet sieving to assess the susceptibility of tilled fallow areas to soil erosion. The aggregate size distribution of the soils of the selected areas was highly variable. Gulistan-e-Sarmast had the largest number of clods (51.0%) followed by Kohsar (49.0%), Latifabad # 10 (41.10%) and Daman-e-Kohsar (39.0%). Fazal Sun City, the left side of the Indus River, the Village Nooral Detha and the left side of the Abdullah Sports city had a greater number of large (>8.0 mm) and small aggregates (<0.5 mm). The optimum aggregate size distribution was found in the left side of the channel, which had the largest number of aggregates (50.50%) in the 0.5–8.0 mm sieve size range. Maximum aggregate stability (AS) was found in Gulistan-e-Sarmast (46%), Kohsar (42%) and Latifabad # 10 (34%), while all other soils had minimum aggregate stability (<14%). The minimum aggregate stabilities demonstrate that the tilled fallow areas of Hyderabad district are highly susceptible to erosion. Therefore, the present study suggests investigating potential ways to enhance the aggregate stabilities of soils.

Open access

Tasawar Hayat, Sabir Ali Shehzad and Ahmed Alsaedi

Abstract

This paper concentrates on the mathematical modelling for three-dimensional flow of an incompressible Oldroyd- B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Mathematical formulation incorporates the effect of internal heat source/sink. Two cases of heat transfer namely the prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF) are considered. Computations for the governing nonlinear flow are presented using homotopy analysis method. Comparison of the present analysis is shown with the previous limiting result. The obtained results are discussed by plots of interesting parameters for both PST and PHF cases. We examine that an increase in Prandtl number leads to a reduction in PST and PHF. It is noted that both PST and PHF are increased with an increase in source parameter. Further we have seen that the temperature is an increasing function of ratio parameter

Open access

Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Waqas, Sabir Ali Shehzad and Ahmed Alsaedi

Abstract

The steady stagnation-point flow of an electrically conducting fluid due to convectively heated stretched disk in the radial direction is considered. Effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are present. Mathematical modelling is based upon constitutive relations of Jeffrey fluid. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into the coupled system of ordinary differential equations and then solved for the convergent series solutions. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are also computed and analysed.

Open access

Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed, El-Sayed Ali Eraky, Mahmoud Fakeer Mohamed and Abdel-Aleem Saad Soliman

Abstract

The sand termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux is a major pest in the New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Great efforts have been taken to control the pest. We evaluated the toxicity of four selected neonicotinoids [acetamiprid (20% SP), imidacloprid (20% SL), thiamethoxam (18.6% SC), and thiamethoxam (40% WG)], and one organophosphate pesticide [chlorpyrifos (48% EC)] against P. hypostoma workers. The investigation was done under field conditions, using the palm fronds method. However, the reduction percentages in palm fronds was recorded as the height of the sandy clay formed by termite workers on palm frond surfaces, when the fronds had been treated with a different concentration of each pesticide. The results were recorded after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Chlorpyrifos (48% EC) was considered the most potent pesticide among all the pesticides tested, but acetamiprid (20% SP) was considered the most toxic among the neonicotinoid pesticides tested. Moreover, the formulation of thiamethoxam (18.6% SC) was more powerful than thaimethoxam (40% WG). Furthermore, the reduction percentages on palm fronds increased significantly with an increase of the exposure period (from 15 to 60 days), as a result of the surface foraging activity of the sand termite workers. These results are given as unique and encouraging trends in controlling sand termites in Egypt.

Open access

Iqbal Ahmad, Raheela Bano, Muhammad Ali Sheraz, Sofia Ahmed, Tania Mirza and Shakeel Ahmad Ansari

The kinetics of photodegradation of levofloxacin in solution on UV irradiation in the pH range 2.0-12.0 has been studied using a HPLC method. Levofloxacin undergoes first-order kinetics in the initial stages of the reaction and the apparent first-order rate constants are of the order of 0.167 to 1.807×10-3 min-1. The rate-pH profile is represented by a curve indicating the presence of cationic, dipolar and anionic species during the reaction. The singly ionized form of the molecule is non-fluorescent and is less susceptible to photodegradation. The increase in the degradation rate in the pH range 5.0-9.0 may be due to greater reactivity of the ionized species existing in that range. The rate appears to vary with a change in the degree of ionization of the species present in a particular pH range and their susceptibility to photodegradation. Above pH 9, the decrease in the rate of photodegradation may be a result of deprotonation of the piperazinyl group. The levofloxacin molecule is more stable in the pH range around 7, which is then suitable for formulation purposes. The photodegradation of levofloxacin was found to be affected by the dielectric constant and viscosity of the medium