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Ahmad Irfan

Abstract

Various photovoltaic parameters, i.e., electron injection (ΔGinject.), electronic coupling constants (|VRP|), light harvesting efficiencies (LHE), band alignment and electronic properties of five chalcone derivatives were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time domain. The light was also shed on the effect of different electron donating groups and their strength intensity on the electronic and charge transfer properties. The balanced hole and electron reorganization energies for Comp 4 showed that it might have better ambipolar charge transfer in nature. The strong electron donating group(s) usually enhance(s) the ΔGinject. and |VRP| of chalcones as -N(CH3)2 > OCH3 > OH. Additionally, ΔGinject. and |VRP| of various substituted chalcone derivatives have been observed as trimethoxy > dimethoxy > monomethoxy. The greater electron donating ability of substituents is also favorable for the staggered band alignment. The superior ΔGinject. of all the studied chalcones than of the referenced compounds disclosed that the prior compounds would be proficient photovoltaic materials.

Open access

M.H. Rahman, S.A. Wajid, M. Afzal, A. Ahmad, M. Awais, M. Irfan and A.U.H. Ahmad

Abstract

Lentil is a short stature, semierect, rabi legume plant cultivated on large area in Pakistan. It is a main source of vegetable protein in human diet. A field study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen application on different agrophysiological traits of three lentil cultivars. The experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in splot plot design with three replicates. The three cultivars were: Punjab Masoor (PM)-2009, NIAB Masoor (NM)- 2006 and NIAB Masoor (NM)-2002) were randomized in main plots and three levels of nitrogen (13, 19 and 25 kg ha-1) in sub-plots. The results showed that various cultivars and nitrogen rates significantly affected the lentil growth, yield and related traits. PM- 2009 performed the best under irrigated semiarid environment of Faisalabad; it gave the highest seed yield (972 kg ha-1). Maximum number of pods plant-1 (47.29), number of grains pod-1 (1.80), 1000-seed weight (21.89 g), grain yield (877.09 kg ha-1) and biological yield (3954.5 kg ha-1) were recorded against 25 kg N ha-1. It was concluded that sowing PM-2009 at 25 kg N ha-1 is best strategy enhance grain yield of lentil in Faisalabad conditions.

Open access

Muhammad Tariq Javed, Latif Ahmad, Francesco Feliziani, Paolo Pasquali, Masood Akhtar, Mahmood Usman, Muhammad Irfan, Giulio Severi and Monica Cagiola

Abstract

Background: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of zoonotic importance. It is disease of high priority all over the world and needs to be investigated in each country.

Objective: This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes and associated risk factors.

Methods: The study was carried out at seven livestock experimental stations in Punjab, Pakistan. Buffaloes were studied by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test.

Result: The results of the study revealed an overall tuberculosis prevalence of 11.3% with 86% of farms having tuberculin positive animals. The frequency analysis revealed significant difference between different groups for age, calving, lactation length, average daily milk and live weight of the buffaloes. Data analysis by T-test also revealed significant difference between means for age, live weight, calving, lactation length and average daily milk between tuberculin positive and negative buffaloes. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analysis revealed significant association of age, live weight, calving, average daily milk and lactation length. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including all the variables in the model revealed significant association of tuberculosis with age, live weight, total milk produced, presence of cattle at the farm, lactation length, and total other animals at the farm.

Conclusion: The prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes increases with the increase in age, calving, live weight, milk production and presence of cattle at the farm, while the prevalence decreases with the increase in lactation length.

Open access

Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Ali Syed, Nasir Abbas, Sana Hanif, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Akhlaq and Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract

A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.