Agnieszka Skurzak, Mariola Kicia, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
This paper is a review of the literature concerning the importance of social support during pregnancy. Being pregnant is a special event in every woman’s life, since it is associated with physical and mental changes. In addition to being a physiological event, pregnancy creates a burden for the body and induces stress. Pregnant women tend to suffer from fear of the unknown, especially regarding: baby, themselves, course of delivery, the need for a new role – of a mother, economic, professional, emotional situations and relationship with partner. The diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy and the need for hospitalization increase the incidence of negative emotions and experiences such as: permanent anxiety about the child’s life, anger, sadness, doubts about the diagnosis, fear of pregnancy complications, frustration and dissatisfaction with the implementation of the functions of maternal concerns during the stay in the hospital. Anxiety and fear that appear during pregnancy affect the attitude of women in pregnancy and after childbirth.
Various authors frequently use the term “pregnancy-specific stress”. There is a relationship between concerns, stress in the mother during pregnancy and lifestyle, duration of pregnancy, and the possible complications during intrauterine and neonatal life. Social support significantly influences the quality of coping with stress in pregnant women. If a pregnant woman receives strong social support from her network, the negative emotions and concerns would be reduced. Receiving support also boosts the chances of successful pregnancy completion. The people from the immediate social network of a pregnant woman, like their partner, spouse, family, friends, midwife, doctor, are the most vital source of support.
Agnieszka Skurzak, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus, Magdalena Korżyńska-Piętas, Magdalena Lewicka and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. Satisfaction with life is a general assessment of satisfaction with one’s own achievements and living conditions on many levels. This includes human cognitive processes, expressing the emotional state that occurs as a result of achieving a specific goal. According to Juczyński, the assessment of life satisfaction is the result of confronting one’s own situation with the adopted criteria. If the result of the comparison is positive, the implication is the feeling of satisfaction. Satisfaction with life of pregnant women is dependent on many factors, including: personality traits, emotions, sociodemographic, factors as well as numerous physiological and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy.
Aim. The aim of the study is to assess the level of life satisfaction of pregnant women depending on sociodemographic factors.
Material and methods. The research was conducted on 415 women hospitalized and receiving care in counseling centers for pregnant women. The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a standardized Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and an original questionnaire to collect demographic data.
Results. Based on the average assessment of life satisfaction, it was found that 48.43% (n = 201) of the surveyed pregnant women was characterized by a high degree of life satisfaction, 35.18% (n = 146) average, and 16.39% (n = 68) of the respondents experienced a low level of life satisfaction.
Conclusions. Sociodemographic factors conditioned the feeling of satisfaction with life of pregnant women. Pregnant women who had a greater sense of life satisfaction were: those in relationship rather than those who were single; women with higher education than those with basic, vocational or secondary education; pregnant women working mentally rather than those not working.
Mariola Kicia, Agnieszka Skurzak, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
Miscarriage is defined as an adverse and unexpected termination of pregnancy before the completion of 22nd week of gestation. Currently, abortion is the most common early reproductive failure. In Poland, more than 40 000 pregnant women a year lose pregnancy due to various reasons. There are many reports in literature on the risk of somatic consequences of miscarriage, while extra-somatic complications resulting from exposure to the strong influence of anxiety and stress, such as, for example: depression and psychosomatic disorders have not been paid too much attention to, yet. Abortion is accompanied by stress and a lot of negative emotions, such as anxiety. They may intensify both due to hospitalization and the need to implement treatment. These negative emotions destroy cognitive power of women, depriving them of their confidence, they can exacerbate the sense of danger, lead to stress and hinder treatment.