This paper presents the results of studies which aim was to determine the pollution of the water environment for both methods of preparation for the utilization of sewage sludge in agriculture. The study was conducted in 2008-2012 in lysimeters filled with light sandy soil (clayey sand). During the study variants with equal doses of nitrogen in an amount of 20 g . m-2 (15.7 g per one lysimeter) were supplied to the soil in sewage sludge and in the compost made from the same sludge. These variants were used three times for two species of perennial plants: Miscanthus gigantenus i Sida hermaphrodita Rusby. In a variant of sludge soil fertilizing, it was leached into water environment more than 12% of the applied nitrogen over 5 years of research. In case of compost nitrogen leaching was reduced to 8.1-10.0% of the quantity supplied to the soil.
Indicators of water consumption and the quantity of wastewater formed in selected branches of food industry
The studies covered the branches: sugar industry, fruit-and-vegetable processing and potato processing plants. The analyses of water consumption and quantities of wastewater formed in 24 production plants were performed in the paper. A comparison of water and wastewater management in three branches showed that the highest water consumption is in fruit-and-vegetable processing. The data collected in the paper indicates the drop of water consumption in potato as well as fruit-and-vegetable industry. The values obtained for sugar industry indicate that it is the least diversified branch.
The study evaluated the leaching of cobalt (Co) in soils fertilized with sewage sludge (SS) and composts depending on the extractant used. SS came from rural, mechanical–biological treatment plant in Dobrzeń, Lower Silesia region. In addition, those SS were processed by composting. Sludges and composts were used to fertilise the energy plants during lysimeter experiment conducted during 2008–2013. The overall, as well as extracted by H2O, 0.1M HCl and 1M HCl, 0.05M Na2EDTA and 0.1M Na2EDTA, content of Co in samples were analysed. Additionally, the impact of pH and organic matter (OM) content on the leachability of Co were researched. It was found that the soil samples were rich in Co. Its share slightly depended on fertilisation with SS and compost. Co leaching depends on the type and concentration of extractant. The highest content of Co were leched with 0.1 M Na2EDTA, and the lowest content with 0.1M HCl. Co concentration in H2O extracts was not determined as its content was below the limit of quantification. Leachability of Co in the analysed samples was influenced by the overall Co content as well as pH and OM content.
Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour. The Academic Motivation Scale was used (). The aims of the study were twofold, first, to crossculturally validate Polish and Turkish versions of the Academic Motivation Scale and second, to identify and compare the motivation to study depending on nationality and gender. Both Polish and Turkish versions of the questionnaire were validated and converted to a four-factorial structure. The findings indicated that Polish and Turkish students’ motivation especially differed in amotivation and intrinsic motivation to know and experience stimulation. Moreover, Turkish female students proved to be at the lowest estimate of amotivation.