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  • Author: Agnieszka Pszczółkowska x
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Open access

Adam Okorski, Agnieszka Pszczółkowska, Tomasz Oszako and Justyna A. Nowakowska

Abstract

The possibility of using chemicals in European forestry is extremely limited due to the binding legal regulations and specific conditions concerning the market of plant protection products. This is reflected in the limited availability of active fungicides in forestry. Due to this limitation, practitioners using fungicides in forest nurseries and forest cultivation must have substantial knowledge of the biology of pathogens to ensure satisfactorily effective protection.

The work presented here provides an overview of the currently recommended fungicides in Polish forestry as well as the mechanisms of interaction between the active substances and the pathogen, the plant and mycorrhizal fungi. The risk of fungicide resistance, which has been insufficiently explored in the context of forest pathogens, is also discussed in this paper.

Open access

Alicja Gorzkowska, Agnieszka Pszczółkowska, Adam Okorski, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako

Abstract

Fungi colonising oak seedlings in forest plantations in north-eastern Poland were identified in 2014-2015. The evaluated 4- to 6-year bare root oaks originated from the Olsztynek Forest District (Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Olsztyn). In total, 744 fungal isolates belonging to 11 different species, and 11 genera, were identified in tested plants. Amongst them, 186 cultures (25%) were classified as plant pathogens. The most commonly isolated pathogenic fungi belonged to the Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon genera.

Open access

Adam Okorski, Tomasz Oszako, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

Abstract

Achieving high quality propagative material is difficult today due to the limited number of pesticides recommended for use. Simultaneously, EU regulations on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in forest nurseries came into a force, requiring a search for alternative plant protection methods that are safe for humans, animals and the environment. In this paper, we present the possibilities of using bio-fungicides against diseases in forest nurseries, their mechanisms of action, as well as the direction of their development (according to IPM rules). We reviewed the results achieved by different research teams presenting the possibilities and trends in combatting Oomycetes and Fusarium spp. pathogens currently having the most important economic impact.

Open access

Adam Senetra, Agnieszka Szczepańska and Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska

Abstract

The development of housing, services and industry as well as the accompanying infrastructure leads to the intensification of urbanisation processes and changes in land use structure. The area of land characterised by urban use is increasing. The above trend is also observed in Eastern Poland despite its predominantly rural character and the absence of metropolitan areas exerting great pressure on the local landscape, contributing to regional development and enhancing the region’s competitiveness. The paper discusses changes in land use structure in developed and urban areas in Eastern Poland. The analysis includes five Polish voivodeships (Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie) characterised by the lowest GDP per capita in the EU-25. For this reason, Eastern Poland will receive aid as part of the ‘Development of Eastern Poland’ Operational Program 2007-2013. This is the only supra-regional program in the European Union which promotes social and economic growth in underdeveloped regions by co-financing projects in urban development, road construction and tourism promotion. The analysis of changes in the share of developed and urban areas in total land area as well as changes in local land use structure (subgroups) covers the period of 2007-2013. The data relating to land use structure was supplied by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. It was used to determine the scale and rate of urbanisation in the analysed voivodeships (regions) and their constituent poviats (counties) with special emphasis on suburban areas. The results were presented in the form of cartograms and thematic maps with the use of GIS tools. The GIS tools support the visualisation of the spatial distribution of the analysed phenomena.

Open access

Robert Krzysztofik, Mirek Dymitrow, Jadwiga Biegańska, Adam Senetra, Eleftheria Gavriilidou, Bogdan Nadolu, Iwona Kantor-Pietraga, Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska, Eleni Oureilidou, Daniel Luches, Tomasz Spórna, Dominic Teodorescu, Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska, Gun Holmertz, Agnieszka Szczepańska and René Brauer

Abstract

This paper deals with the ways of categorising landscapes as ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ using a physicalist approach, where these terms have special meaning. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the question whether such a division is still meaningful with regard to anthropogenic landscapes, not least in spatial planning. The concerns raised in this paper depart from the increasingly complicated structure of geographical space, including that of anthropogenic landscapes. Our standpoint is illustrated using cases of landscape ambiguities from Poland, Germany, Romania and Greece. Leaning on frameworks of physicalist (mechanicistic) theory, this paper suggests an explanation to the outlined semantic conflicts. This is done by pointing to the relationality between the impact of centripetal and centrifugal forces, the specifics of socio-economic development, as well as the varying landscape forms that emerge from the differences within that development.