Each year communities generate large quantities of municipal waste, including green waste such as grass and leaves. According to the waste catalogue, they may be treated as belonging to the group 20 02 (garden and park waste), and more specifically, to the group 20 02 01 – biodegradable waste. The aim of the study is to characterise the development directions of the green waste generated in the municipalities. Skilful management of this waste is extremely important. The following work focuses on three different technologies that enable efficient management of the green waste: methane fermentation, pelletising and composting. According to many authors, the most common technologies are pelletising and composting. In contrast, biogas fermentation of green waste in the municipalities is performed on a much smaller scale than other technologies. This may be due to the fact that this technology requires a significant expertise and is more complicated in terms of technology
Physico-chemical and dispersive characterisation of magnesium oxides precipitated from the Mg(NO3)2 and MgSO4 solutions
An attempt was made to synthesise magnesium oxide of a high degree of dispersion permitting its use as adsorbent or catalyst. The synthesis method proposed was precipitation with the use of magnesium nitrate or magnesium sulfate. The influence of temperature, the mode and the rate of dosing, the concentration and the ratio of the reagents on the properties of the final product was analysed. Magnesium oxides were obtained by thermal decomposition of magnesium hydroxides and subjected to thorough analysis. The results permitted selection of the reaction systems ensuring synthesis of the final products of the desired properties.
Synthesis of magnesium hydroxide was performed by the precipitation method with the use of magnesium sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The infiuence of temperature and ratio of reagents was studied. Magnesium hydroxides, and the magnesium oxides obtained from them by thermal decomposition, were analyzed to determine their bulk density, polydispersity and particle size. The magnesium oxide with the largest surface area was tested as a catalyst in the oxyethylation of lauryl alcohol, and shown to be selective but poorly reactive in comparison with commercially available catalysts. Further studies are needed to improve its reactivity.
The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum) in vegetable (onion and tomato) waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure). Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.
The results of anaerobic digestion (AD) of buttermilk (BM) and cheese whey (CW) with a digested sewage sludge as inoculum is described. The substrate/inoculum mixtures were prepared using 10% buttermilk and 15% cheese whey. The essential parameters of the materials were described, including: total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), pH, conductivity, C/N ratio (the quantitative ratio of organic carbon (C) to nitrogen (N)), alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD). The potential directions of biodegradation of the organic waste types, as used in this study, are also presented. Appropriate chemical reactions illustrate the substrates and products in each phase of anaerobic decomposition of the compounds that are present in buttermilk and cheese whey: lactic acid, lactose, fat, and casein. Moreover, the biogas and biomethane production rates are compared for the substrates used in the experiment. The results have shown that buttermilk in AD generates more biogas (743 m3/Mg VS), including methane (527 m3/Mg VS), when compared with cheese whey (600 m3/Mg VS, 338 m3/Mg VS for biogas and methane, respectively).