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  • Author: Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska x
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Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska


Changes occurring in freshwater ecosystems seem to be fundamental in the development of all microorganisms, including those pathogenic to fish. This has been especially evident in recent years during which dynamic variations in bacterial fish pathology have been observed. Gram-negative bacteria commonly known to be pathogenic to fish, like Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Shewanella putrefaciens are replaced by other species, which until now have not been known to be virulent or even conditionally pathogenic to fish. Nowadays, among these other species Acinetobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are the most frequently isolated from fish exhibiting clinical signs of disease. Two Gram-positive bacteria have become pathogens of particular importance in fish pathology in Poland: Lactococcus garviae and Streptococcus iniae. In addition, infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Kocuria rhizophila have appeared in recent years. This bacterium has not been known until now to be pathogenic to fish. Therefore, this infection could be called an emergent disease.