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  • Author: Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska x
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Changes occurring in freshwater ecosystems seem to be fundamental in the development of all microorganisms, including those pathogenic to fish. This has been especially evident in recent years during which dynamic variations in bacterial fish pathology have been observed. Gram-negative bacteria commonly known to be pathogenic to fish, like Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Shewanella putrefaciens are replaced by other species, which until now have not been known to be virulent or even conditionally pathogenic to fish. Nowadays, among these other species Acinetobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are the most frequently isolated from fish exhibiting clinical signs of disease. Two Gram-positive bacteria have become pathogens of particular importance in fish pathology in Poland: Lactococcus garviae and Streptococcus iniae. In addition, infections caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Kocuria rhizophila have appeared in recent years. This bacterium has not been known until now to be pathogenic to fish. Therefore, this infection could be called an emergent disease.



The Shewanella putrefaciens group are ubiquitous microorganisms recently isolated from different freshwater fish species and causing serious health disorders. The purpose of the study was to characterise isolates of the S. putrefaciens group with special emphasis on elucidating serological diversity and determining putative virulence factors.

Material and Methods

Isolates collected from freshwater fish (n = 44) and reference strains were used. The identification of bacteria was carried out using biochemical kits and 16S rRNA sequencing. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the S. putrefaciens group. The bacterium’s susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, its enzymatic properties, and its adhesion ability to fish cell lines were also tested. Finally, selected isolates were used in challenge experiments in common carp and rainbow trout.


Excluding six isolates undeterminable for species, the bacteria were classified to three species: S. putrefaciens, S. xiamenensis, and S. oneidensis, and showed some phenotypic diversity. Fourteen serological variants of the S. putrefaciens group were determined with the newly developed serotyping scheme.


Serodiversity may play an important role in the virulence of particular isolates. Further, S. putrefaciens group members adhere to epithelial cells and produce enzymes which may contribute to their virulence. Challenge tests confirmed the pathogenicity of the S. putrefaciens group for fish.