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Beata Meyer and Agnieszka Niezgoda

Abstract

The purpose of the present paper is to attempt to identify relations between the changing perception of leisure and the creation of tourism and recreational spaces in urban areas. The authors focus in particular on changes associated with the so-called ‘third wave’ (Toffler 2001), time compression (Niezgoda 2017), and departure from synchronization. These considerations are illustrated by an analysis of the recreational activity of Szczecin residents and of tourists, and attempt identifying the relations between recreational space and tourism space. With the constant compression of leisure time, tourism activities become more similar to the leisure activities of residents, which means both types occur in the same environment. Urban recreational and tourism spaces overlap in a way that makes it impossible to separate them, but still allows the distinction of certain sub-spaces where either tourism or recreational behavior prevails.

Open access

Agnieszka Mackiewicz, Grzegorz Sławiński, Tadeusz Niezgoda and Romuald Będziński

Abstract

As a result of an explosion under a military vehicle, the risk of threat to life and health of the crew increases. Examination of this event in terms of the security of soldiers comes down to a complex analysis of the mutual interaction of the body of a soldier, seating and structural elements of the vehicle. As a result, shock wave impacts can cause tremor resulting from the construction of the vehicle and acceleration of the passenger's body. This study attempts to analyze the impact of an explosion of an improvised explosive device (IED) under the military vehicle with the risk of cervical spine injuries of soldiers. The analysis was carried out using numerical methods in the LS-DYNA program and was carried out taking into account the variable displacement values and acceleration recorded during the\ explosion. The study used a model of the body of a soldier in the form of a Hybrid III 50th Male Dummy.