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Agnieszka Lisowska

Abstract

Tourism has become a common phenomenon, very important for various reasons, especially for developing regions and countries, and which in consequence has been perceived as positive. However, increasingly commonly works have cast a slightly different look. Tourism leads to a temporarily increased number of people in a relatively small area, and contributes to the introduction of ‘strangers’ to local communities which can lead to problems such as crime. On the other hand, a higher risk of being a victim may lead to the reduced attractiveness of a given destination. A small number of studies in this field draw attention to this, concentrating on a general outline of their interdependence but specific urban tourist areas are rarely the subject of research. This review covers various works on the relationship between tourism and crime.

Open access

Grzegorz Przekota and Agnieszka Lisowska

Abstract

Expansionary fiscal policy is mired in controversy. Its proponents suggest that during recession, it stimulates investors’ activity and has a stabilizing effect on economic growth. However, its opponents point to the costs associated with the budget deficit and public debt handling. Increased public spending may result in an increase in the interest rates, which may, in turn, hinder private investment and weaken the multiplier effect of public spending. The following study examines how private spending and market interest rates reacted to changes in public spending in Poland. The study has shown that public spending stimulates private spending, which is consistent with the Keynesian model, but it also leads to an increase in market interest rates, which is consistent with the neoclassical model.

Open access

Maria Olech, Michał Węgrzyn, Maja Lisowska, Agnieszka Słaby and Piotr Angiel

Contemporary Changes in Vegetation of Polar Regions

Rapid climate changes which have been observed over the recent years in both polar regions of the Earth, directly or indirectly affect vegetation dynamics. This article presents the main directions of the changes taking place in the recent years in tundra communities of both polar regions, based on original research carried out in the Arctic in Spitsbergen and in the maritime Antarctic on King George Island.

Open access

Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny, Małgorzata Slowińska-Lisowska and Edward Superlak

Pro-Oxidative Processes and Cytokine Response to Training in Professional Basketball Players

In the present study, we evaluated the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and their relation with oxidative damage markers in training cycles of basketball players.

Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The basketball players were observed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Twenty healthy and untrained males composed of the reference group.

The comparative study has shown significantly higher levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC) in nonathletes than in basketball players during the observed training periods. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), similarly to TBARS and PC, was significantly higher in nonathletes than athletes, except at the end of the play-off round. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was lower in nonathletes than athletes in the preparatory period but it was higher in athletes in play-off round. In basketball players, the high level of IL-6 directly correlated with TBARS (r = 0.763, p<0.001) and PC (r = 0.636, p<0.001) during the preparatory period, whereas the high level of TNF α inversely correlated with TBARS (r = −0.601, p<0.001) and PC (r = −0.650, p<0.001) in the play-off round. The activity of creatine kinase (CK) was significantly increased during the training mezocycles in basketball players compared with nonathletes, and reached the highest activity at the end of the play-off round. CK activity did not correlate with oxidative damage markers and cytokines in both untrained and trained subjects.

Our results have shown the reduction in oxidative damage and improvement in cytokine response following professional training, as well as the relationship between inflammatory and pro-oxidative processes in basketball players.

Open access

Agnieszka Zembroń-Łacny, Małgorzata Slowińska-Lisowska and Edward Superlak

Pro-Oxidative Processes and Cytokine Response to Training in Professional Basketball Players

In the present study, we evaluated the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and their relation with oxidative damage markers in training cycles of basketball players.

Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The basketball players were observed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Twenty healthy and untrained males composed of the reference group.

The comparative study has shown significantly higher levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC) in nonathletes than in basketball players during the observed training periods. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), similarly to TBARS and PC, was significantly higher in nonathletes than athletes, except at the end of the play-off round. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was lower in nonathletes than athletes in the preparatory period but it was higher in athletes in play-off round. In basketball players, the high level of IL-6 directly correlated with TBARS (r = 0.763, p<0.001) and PC (r = 0.636, p<0.001) during the preparatory period, whereas the high level of TNF α inversely correlated with TBARS (r = −0.601, p<0.001) and PC (r = −0.650, p<0.001) in the play-off round. The activity of creatine kinase (CK) was significantly increased during the training mezocycles in basketball players compared with nonathletes, and reached the highest activity at the end of the play-off round. CK activity did not correlate with oxidative damage markers and cytokines in both untrained and trained subjects.

Our results have shown the reduction in oxidative damage and improvement in cytokine response following professional training, as well as the relationship between inflammatory and pro-oxidative processes in basketball players.

Open access

Katarzyna Michalak, Agnieszka Pawlicka-Lisowska and Elżbieta Poziomska-Piątkowska

Abstract

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular swimming activity on the respiratory system of smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The study included 196 students, aged 19 to 24 years, attending weekly swimming classes. All students underwent pulmonary function testing before and after participating in a swimming program for 10 months. Measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth (PImax, PEmax) and the percentage carboxyhemoglobin level in blood (%CoHb) were also measured. Results. After 10 months of regular swimming activity the values of FVC, PEF, MIP and MEP increased in the non-smoking as well as in the smoking group, while the FEV1 increased only among smokers. The percentage of CoHB level in the blood decreased in both groups. Conclusions. The study confirmed the positive effect of swimming on respiratory system function and the importance of promoting physical activity such as swimming among cigarette smokers as well as non-smokers.

Open access

Urszula Bielczyk, Paweł Czarnota, Martin Kukwa, Lucyna Śliwa, Robert Kościelniak, Laura Betleja, Ryszard Kozik, Beata Krzewicka, Mariusz Hachułka, Edyta Adamska, Michał Węgrzyn, Dominika Bielec, Adam Flakus, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska, Katarzyna Kolanko, Joanna Kozik, Grzegorz Leśniański, Maja Lisowska, Magdalena Oset, Piotr Osyczka, Katarzyna Pietrzykowska-Urban, Anna Sadowska-Deś, Agnieszka Słaby, Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Karina Wilk, Piotr T. Zaniewski and Daria Zarabska-Bożejewicz

Abstract

The paper lists 337 species from Magurski National Park (MNP): 314 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi, four saprotrophic fungi and one lichenicolous myxomycete; 112 of them are new for MNP, 75 are reported for the first time for the Beskid Niski Mts, and two are new for Poland. Selected species are accompanied by taxonomic notes and remarks on their distribution in Poland and other Carpathian ranges. First records of Intralichen lichenicola, Burgoa angulosa and Verrucaria policensis and a second record of Epigloea urosperma are given for the whole Carpathian range, and Fuscidea arboricola was recorded for the first time in the Western Carpathians. Halecania viridescens and Mycomicrothelia confusa are new for the Polish Carpathians. The records of Absconditella pauxilla, Collema crispum, Licea parasitica and Rinodina griseosoralifera in MNP are their second known localities for the range. 93 species, mainly rare or threatened in Poland, were reported from MNP in the 20th century but were not refound.