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  • Author: Agnieszka Kozak x
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Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the paper is to present the state of and prospects for the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze, a physico-geographical mesoregion in south- eastern Poland.

Materials and methods: The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using the survey technique and a literature review. It was carried out in the period from April to June 2018 on a sample of 128 tourists.

Results: The research showed that tourists most often cycle several times a week, covering distances of more than 30 km. The main reason for visiting this region is its natural values. The general assessment of the tourist routes indicates that they are not sufficiently prepared for tourists. It was also shown that in order to popularise cycling tourism, it is necessary to expand lodging facilities, and to provide more practical information about routes.

Conclusions: The main factor encouraging tourists to visit Central Roztocze is its natural beauty. The general condition of the routes was assessed by the respondents as “average”. The factor conducive to the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze might be the development of the cycling infrastructure, including lodging facilities and practical information on cycling trails.


Introduction. Breastfeeding is the optimal method of nourishing newborns and infants, as provided in guidelines and recommendations issued by both maternal and child health organizations and associations. For this reason, breastfeeding should be promoted and supported through educating the population. Various media outlets (television, radio, the Internet, press) have become an integral part of people’s daily life and an important source of information on health.

Aim. The present study aimed at determining the role of the mass media in the promotion of breastfeeding.

Material and methods. The study was conducted between January and April 2015 on 262 women. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The researchers used a self-designed questionnaire. The software used for databases and statistical analysis was STATISTICA 9.1 (StatSoft, Poland).

Results. A statistical analysis has shown that married women (p=0.00168), women with higher education (p=0.04007), women who had their own businesses (p=0.04482) and those who had given birth to one child (p=0.00093) stated that information on breastfeeding was available in the media. The women surveyed pointed to the media (56.13%) as the source of information on breastfeeding, while the Internet (82.07%) was the most popular medium used by the respondents to look for information on breastfeeding. The participants believed that the media should focus on promoting the benefits of breastfeeding for the child (94.27%).

Conclusions. The media are the most popular source of information on breastfeeding. The media should promote breastfeeding mainly through providing information on the benefits for the child. The Internet is the most popular medium to look for information on breastfeeding.


Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issues of promotion and its impact on the students’ decisions to choose a place to study. The problem seems to be important due to the changes on the educational market that have been taking place for several years. On the one hand, we have a large supply of academic institutions, and, on the other, an ongoing demographic decline. Such a situation requires the implementation of marketing activities which can establish and maintain permanent relationships between higher education institutions and the recipients of their offers.

Materials and methods: This study used a non-random selection. It included 100 randomly selected students of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska (PSW). Its aim was to answer two basic research questions, namely what impact on students’ choice of a place to study have promotional activities undertaken by higher education institutions, and which forms of promotion have the greatest and the least impact on students’ choices.

Results: The survey of respondents’ opinions was conducted at the turn of January and February 2020 by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire. The main source of information on academic institutions to choose from, as stated by the respondents, were their friends and family. Such an answer was given by as many as 40% of the respondents. The research also showed that the greatest impact on students’ decisions were: the information on the website of a higher education institution (24%), open days (19%), as well as leaflets and guides (16%).

Conclusions: The arguments for the choice of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, and not some other academic institution, were primarily a convenient location, its prestige, the possibility of foreign trips and the positive opinions of their friends. The respondents positively assess the image of their study place, but they find its promotional activities to be insufficient.


Aim. The study was to assess the level of stress and the health locus of control in parents of hospitalized newborns.

Material and methods. The study covered a group of 150 parents of 126 newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Pathology Ward at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin. The diagnostic survey method was applied with the use of an original questionnaire as well as some standardized tools: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC – version B).

Results. In more than a half of the subjects (54.0%), a high level of stress was observed. Every fourth (26.1%) parent was characterized by an average level of stress and nearly every fifth (19.3%) by a low level of stress. The highest indicator was characterized by the domain of the internal health control locus. Every fifth parent represented an undifferentiated type - weak or magnifying the impact of others (22.0% and 20.0% respectively). The smallest group of parents (5.3%) belonged to the externally-oriented, strong type. Conclusions. The parents of hospitalized newborns are characterized mainly by high and average levels of stress and low level of severity of health control location within each of its domains. The highest indicator of internal locus control and the influence of others are characterized by parents with low and average levels of stress. The dominant type of locus of health control that characterizes parents is the undifferentiated type – weak and magnifying the impact of others.


At the beginning of the year 2016, the representatives of the Polish Radon Centre decided to organize proficiency tests (PTs) for measurements of radon gas and radon decay products in the air, involving radon monitors and laboratory passive techniques. The Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity of the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Katowice, became responsible for the organization of the PT exercises. The main reason to choose that location was the radon chamber in GIG with a volume of 17 m3, the biggest one in Poland. Accordingly, 13 participants from Poland plus one participant from Germany expressed their interest. The participants were invited to inform the organizers about what types of monitors and methods they would like to check during the tests. On this basis, the GIG team prepared the proposal for the schedule of exercises, such as the required level(s) of radon concentrations, the number and periods of tests, proposed potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels and also the overall period of PT. The PT activity was performed between 6th and 17th June 2016. After assessment of the results, the agreement between radon monitors and other measurement methods was confirmed. In the case of PAEC monitors and methods of measurements, the results of PT exercises were consistent and confirmed the accuracy of the calibration procedures used by the participants. The results of the PAEC PTs will be published elsewhere; in this paper, only the results of radon intercomparison are described.