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Open access

Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Krzysztof Rębilas

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of pea root mass in the soil, over a three-year period, under varying weather conditions and at different levels of phosphorus application, by means of evaluating and comparing parameters of a mathematical model characterising cumulative root mass distribution. A two-factor experiment was conducted in Prusy, near Krakow: the first factor was the level of phosphorus application (0-70-140 kg P2O5 ha−1) and the second was the cultivars (six cultivars were tested). Experimental data produced using the model indicated that the root distribution was strongly differentiated by water availability in the years of the study. This appeared in some cases to be a more important factor than phosphorus application rates. The estimated soil depth at which 50% of the root mass was accumulated differed significantly for the dry and the wet year. In the wet year, only very high phosphorus application rates contributed to an increase in root mass distribution. The estimation of root mass distribution from the presented data can be used to improve phosphorus application depending on the amount of precipitation.

Open access

Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra, Jacek Strojny, Tadeusz Zając, Anna Ślizowska, Jana Klimešova and Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner

Summary

The development of seeds at various positions in the pod is asynchronous. Thus, the differences of seed dry mass production because of environmental conditions may depend on the cultivar type, type of inoculants and interrelations between seeds per pod, pods per plant or seeds per plant. Presently, a mathematical description of pea seed categorisation is missing. The aim of the study was the assessment of two groups of variables (quantitative and qualitative) for pea seed weight categorisation by ordinal regression model. Year, cultivar and inoculant constituted the first group (qualitative variables), whilst seeds per pod, the pods per plant and seeds per plant (quantitative variables) were entered as covariates in the ordinal regression model. According to the ordinal regression model variables, seeds per pod, pods per plant, seeds per plant, year and cultivar are meaningful predictors of the seed mass categories. However, the variable inoculant is marginally significant.

Open access

Beata Klimek, Edyta Fiałkowska, Janusz Fyda, Wioleta Kocerba-Soroka, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós and Łukasz Sobczyk

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two flocculants that are often used to overcome activated sludge bulking problems - aluminium chloride, AlCl3, and aluminium sulphate, Al2(SO4)3 - on Lecaneinermis (Rotifera, Monogononta) at three different temperatures: 8, 15 and 20°C. The mean EC50 value (effective concentration, mg dm-3) calculated for the 24 h mortality test was 0.012 mg Al3+dm-3. Next, the effects of low concentrations of the Al-salts on the population development from single individuals (parthenogenetic females) were tested in a 21-day experiment. At concentrations as low as EC4.8 and EC0.48, both Al-salts affected rotifer population negatively. However, temperature was the most pronounced factor that modified the toxicity of the Al-salts to the rotifers. On the 12th day of the experiment, there were significant interactions between temperature and the Al-salts, indicating that the chemicals were more toxic to the rotifers at 20°C than at lower temperatures. The weaker rotifers sensitivity to Al-salts (especially to AlCl3) in temperatures below 15°C, when the biggest problems associated with sludge bulking occurs,may means use both rotifers and chemicals reasonable and effective.

Open access

Alicja Kicińska and Agnieszka Klimek

Abstract

The problem of exposing to toxins in places frequented by people (especially children) for a longer time is an important aspect of environmental studies. Therefore, in Rabka-Zdrój, one of children health resorts, the contents of nine heavy metals, with a special focus on Cd, Pb and Zn, were determined in soils, grass, sands and dusts. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn occur in soil samples: 2-3, 32-48 and 33-291 mg∙kg-1, respectively. Slightly lower are the concentrations in the sands taken from sandboxes: 1-3, 25-36 and 7-20 mg∙kg-1 of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. In the grass, commonly growing in playground areas, the average concentrations of the metals are: 1.8, 20 and 60 mg∙kg-1 of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. While the contents of the three metals in soils and sands do not exceed natural concentrations, the contents of Cd and Pb in grass exceed the values considered natural. The urban atmospheric dusts, suspected to be the major source of pollution, were analysed for the three metals. Their ranges (in mg∙kg-1) are: 6-15 for Cd, 80-215 for Pb and 104-260 for Zn. The lowest effects of pollution characterise the playground in the park no. III located in Orkana Street, whereas the highest the playground in the park no. I located in Parkowa Street. However, in none of the locations, the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn exceed the potentially harmful elements (PHE) considered as threatening the health and even life of children.

Open access

Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec

Open access

Tomasz Zając, Agnieszka Synowiec, Andrzej Oleksy, Jan Macuda, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra and Franciszek Borowiec

Abstract

Cereal straw is an important biomass source in Europe. This work assessed: 1) the morphological and energetic characteristics of culms of spring and winter cereals, 2) the energy deposited in the different aboveground parts of cereals, 3) losses of energy due to different cutting heights. The straw of winter and spring cereals was collected from arable fields during the seasons 2009/10 and 2010/11 in southern Poland. Detailed biometric measurements of culms and internodes were performed. The losses of straw biomass and energy were assessed during simulation of cutting the culm at different heights, up to 50 cm. Longer and heavier culms were developed by winter wheat and triticale and oat. Cutting of straw up to 10 cm did not lead to significant losses in straw yield. The total amount of energy in the culms was as follows: triticale > winter wheat > oat > spring wheat > winter barley > spring barley. Cutting the culms above 20 cm led to significant differences in terms of biomass energy between cereal species. The smallest losses of energy were recorded for spring and winter barley. Oat and barley accumulated the highest energy in grains.

Open access

Katarzyna Górniak, Tadeusz Szydłak, Adam Gaweł, Agnieszka Klimek, Anna Tomczyk, Jerzy Motyka and Krzysztof Bahranowski

Abstract

This paper summarizes information about recently worked bentonite deposits in Slovakia and presents the results of studies on bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field (CSVF). The authors compared the mineralogy of commercial bentonites exploited in the Stara Kremnička (Jelšový potok), Kopernica, and Hliník nad Hronom deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses and microscopy showed that the main component is montmorillonite (37-88%), followed by opal C/CT (5-25%), clinoptilolite (up to 15%), feldspars (3-12%), quartz (up to 8%), biotite (2-5%), and kaolinite (up to 2%). The microscopic imaging provided information valuable for the technological assessment of bentonites, particularly the evaluation of mineralogy determined by XRD. The low variability of the mineral composition of commercial bentonites exploited in the western CSVF, together with the significant reserves and localization of deposits close to the Polish-Slovak state border prove that this raw material deserves more attention from Polish industry.