The aim of the work was to select pollinators for sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Vanda’, ‘Techlovan’, ‘Syl–via’ and ‘Regina’, which are of great economic significance in Poland. As pollinators, three or four different cultivars with the same or similar flowering time as the pollinated cultivars were evaluated annually. The pollinators belonged to different incompatibility groups. Pollination was carried out over four consecutive seasons. Assuming that for a good yield more than 20% of the flowers should develop fruits, a good polli–nator for the cv. ‘Vanda’ was ‘Techlovan’, and for the cv. ‘Regina’ - ‘Sylvia’. The cv. ‘Techlovan’ was pollinated to best effect by ‘Vega’, and the cv. ‘Sylvia’ by ‘Regina’, but the setting of fruits in the last two combinations was moderately good. Low to moderately good fruit setting but depending on the year was observed in the combinations ‘Sylvia’ x ‘Summit’, ‘Regina’ x ‘Summit’, and ‘Regina’ x ‘Rainier’. Cultivar ‘Summit’ for ‘Sylvia’, and ‘Summit’ and ‘Rainier’ for the cv. ‘Regina’ should not be used as pollinators because the low percentage of fruit set obtained annually does not guarantee a satisfactory yield.
Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Paulina Rusanowska and Katarzyna Głowacka
The elemental composition and morphology of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated. The investigation particularly focused on the effect of the number of anoxic phases (one vs. two) in the cycle and the dose of external organics loading (450 mg COD/(L·cycle) vs. 540 mg COD/(L·cycle)) on granule characteristics.
Granules in all reactors were formed of many single cells of rod and spherical bacteria. Addition of the second anoxic phase in the GSBR cycle resulted in enhanced settling properties of the granules of about 10.6% and at the same time decreased granule diameter of about 19.4%. The study showed that external organics loading was the deciding factor in the elemental composition of biomass. At 540 mg COD/(L·cycle) the granules contained more weight% of C, S and N, suggesting more volatile material in the granule structure. At lower organics loadings granules had the higher diameter of granules which limited the diffusion of oxygen and favored precipitation of mineral compounds in the granule interior. In this biomass higher content of Mg, P and Ca, was observed.
Agnieszka Głowacka, Tomasz Noszczyk, Jarosław Taszakowski and Józef Hernik
This article addresses the issue of conflict situations caused by an out-of-date Land and Property Register (LPR) and the disadvantageous structure of rural areas in southern Poland. In this part of the country, holdings are very fragmented and scattered, made up of a large number of small surface area plots located far from the headquarters of the holding. The aim of the article is to present actions that can help improve rural spatial structure and validity of the land register. The authors have, therefore, analysed the problems that may result in both spatial and social conflicts. The following were analysed in particular: discrepancies between data in the LPR and the existing factual state, plots without access to public roads, property ownership structure, the necessity to regulate property boundaries, and problems with the procedure for taking land out of agricultural production. The article presents both positive and negative effects of the land consolidation and exchange process, modernisation of the Land and Property Register, and their impact on socio-spatial conflicts. Its results indicated that the land consolidation procedure and LPR modernisation have a significant impact on socio-spatial relations in rural areas. It has been found that despite the fact that both these activities may give rise to new disputes in addition to resolving conflicts, the overall balance is positive. It is because more positive aspects of these actions were found than negative consequences.
Wojciech Tylmann, Paulina Głowacka and Agnieszka Szczerba
Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental and climate change. Especially important are varved sediments which can provide high-resolution (annual) records of those changes. Process studies including limnological measurements, particle flux monitoring and analyses of sediment structures give an opportunity to explain relationships between meteorological conditions, in-lake processes and varve formation. In our study, three lakes were selected in the Masurian Lakeland: Lake Żabińskie, Łazduny and Rzęśniki. These relatively small and deep lakes contain well preserved biogenic varves. The lakes are influenced by the same meteorological conditions but differ in terms of their catchment size, land use, hydrology, lake basin morphology and trophic status. To explore the relationships between different parameters and preservation/transformation of climate signals in the sediments we started systematic limnological measurements in the water column of these lakes, water sampling for hydrochemical analyses, monitoring of modern sedimentation using sediment traps and analysis of topmost varves from short sediment cores. With this comprehensive and high-resolution monitoring program scheduled for at least four years we are going to verify the potential of varves to track short-term meteorological phenomena in lake sediments.
Joanna Girzelska, Magdalena Głowacka, Dorota Wilk-Jeziorska, Agnieszka Malikowska, Jolanta Dziewulska and Anna Jasiówka
Introduction. Loneliness is considered a disease of affluence. It is a mixture of lack of acceptance, rejection and unpleasant experiences. It is accompanied by disappointment, unhappiness and pessimism. The consequences of loneliness can be seen in the psyche and physical ailments.
Aim. Demonstrating the impact of loneliness on the health of the elderly and possible interventions for entertainment in the prevention of loneliness of the elderly.
Methodology. Literature was classified into the analysis, from which the content regarding the influence of loneliness on health of elderly and selected preventive interventions of the discussing phenomena.
Conclusions. Loneliness results in the deterioration of the condition of the elderly, increases stress level in the body and the risk of depression. The ways of fighting with loneliness include education, participation in the Universities of the Third Age and activity in the senior clubs.
Introduction. Behaviour according to the ethical principles is meaningful for shaping of nurses’ ethical and professional attitude. Contact between the nurse and the sick child requires an ethical model and professional attitude, excellent politeness and sensitivity.
Aim. Assessment of ethical attitudes in the opinion of pediatric nurses.
Material and method. Research was conducted among 133 nurses working in two hospitals in Łodz: in the Clinical Hospital No. 4 of Medical University and in the Institute of Polish Mother’s Health Center. The study used questionnaire of own design. Pearson correlation index determination was used for statistical analysis of the results.
Results and conclusions. More than half examined nurses (63.4%) was able to give a correct definition of professional ethics. The nursing profession was not connected only with earnings in the opinion of 86.4% nurses. Most respondents (56.8%) have admitted that nurses not always behave ethically. Too low salary was the most often mentioned reason (67%) for not ethical behaviour. High sense of responsibility and patience are the main features which mus distinguish the nurse. More than half of the respondents would choose this profession again. Participants claimed most often (95.5%) that nurses should deepen their knowledge permanently, but not everyone even in this group, does it.