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  • Author: Agnieszka Dudziak x
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Abstract

The insertion of a city bike that complements the public transport system in large agglomerations, and mainly in the most crowded city centers, seems to be a very good solution that can contribute to reducing air pollution and reducing noise levels. In many situations, bicycle transport can perfectly fill deficiencies in public transport, e.g. at night, on holidays and on days when buses run to a limited extent. The article presents the functioning of the city bike system in Lublin since 2014. The first part of this article presents basic data on the city bike system in Lublin together with a map of bicycle stations, followed by data on the number of rentals, rental time, number of bicycle users, etc. Selected user opinions obtained on the basis of the survey were also presented. Finally, based on the analysis, final conclusions were formulated. The city bike system is used by about 10% of the population of the city of Lublin.

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is the most common malignancy caused by EBV infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as major components of innate immune system are crucial in the development of inflammatory processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to evaluate tissue and serum level of TLR9 in EBV-positive and EBV-negative gastric cancer patients. The study involved 30 EBV(+) and 30 EBV(-) patients. EBV DNA was detected in fresh frozen tumor tissue. In serum samples TLR9 level, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and antibodies against EBV were detected using ELISA tests. TLR9 level was also measured in homogenate of tumour tissue. TLR9 level was statistically lower in EBV(+) patients both in serum and tissue, with statistically higher level in tissue than in serum. Lower level of TLR9 was accompanied by higher level of Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and early antigen (EA). A lower level of TLR9 was detected in patients with poorly differentiated cancer (G3) and greater lymph nodes involvement (N3-N4). Lower level of TLR9 in patients with EA may point to TLR9 role in reactivation of EBV infection.