Waldemar Sienkiewicz, Aleksander Szczurkowski, Agnieszka Dudek and Jerzy Kaleczyc
The study was performed on six male chinchillas. The animals were anaesthetised with ether and the anaesthesia was deepened with nembuthal injected intraperitoneally. The chinchillas were then transcardially perfused with 0.4 L of 4% buffered paraformaldehyde, and testes, epididymides, and vasa deferentia were collected. The tunica albuginea from one testis from each chinchilla was stained as whole-mount preparation. The tissues were cut into 12 μm-thick cryostat sections, and processed for double-immunofluorescence method. In all organs studied, the most abundant nerve fibres were dopamine β hydroxylase positive (DβH+). Some of them contained neuropeptide Y (NPY). Sporadically NPY-positive-only nerve fibres were found. Single DβH+ nerve terminals contained also galanine. Small numbers of the nerve fibres supplying studied organs were stained for substance P (SP) and calitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Almost all SP+ fibres were also CGRP+, whereas single CGRP+ nerves were SPimmunonegative. Some nerve terminals were immunoreactive to vesicular acetylcholine transporter and vasoactive intestinal peptide. The organs studied were innervated unevenly. The highest density of the nerves was found in the areas of the tunica albuginea adjacent to the mesorchial border of the testis and their number gradually decreased towards the free border of the gonad. None of the vascular tissue of the testicular parenchyma was free of the nerve fibres, except sporadically encountered DβH+ nerves which supply seminiferous tubules. Within the head of the epididymis a moderate number of nerve terminals were found, but in the body and tail of the organ the number of nerves gradually increased. The vas deferens was supplied with very numerous nerve fibres. There were no differences in the density of the innervation between the funicular and abdominal part of the vas deferens.
Kamila Dziwota, Agnieszka Dudek, Anna Szpak, Karolina Ludwikowska, Damian Kowalski, Łukasz Drabarek†, Ewelina Dziwota and Marcin Olajossy
The basic purpose of this article is to compare how people with low and high self-esteem rated particular values. Additionally, the authors look at gender differences concerning the attitudes toward certain values.
The study involved 268 individuals aged 19-24 (M= 21.71, SD= 1.54). The participants were surveyed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The results were considered significant at p<0.05. The findings demonstrated that people with lower self-esteem had higher opinion of values like Conformity, Pleasure, and Comfortable Life as well as some Instrumental Values (Self-Control and Politeness), when compared against the individuals with higher self-esteem. On the other hand, they were found to value Courage. There were no differences concerning the way individuals with high and low self-esteem rated Social Recognition, A Sense of Accomplishment and Self-Respect.
Also, the authors noticed that men were more likely to appreciate Hedonistic and Intellectual values, while women attached greater significance to Relational values. There were no gender differences concerning the rating of Aesthetic and Subjective values.
Paulina Gil-Kulik, Alicja Niedojadło, Marcin Feldo, Jolanta Karwat, Lidia Kotuła, Piotr Chomik, Ilona Dudek, Małgorzata Filas, Agnieszka Wojcieszek, Tomasz Zubilewicz, Anna Bogucka-Kocka and Janusz Kocki
Introduction. Recent research shows that programmed cell death has great importance in the pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. The BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes belong to Class III IAPs with the anti-apoptotic effect. The proteins display multidirectional action. According to the available literature, in addition to the effect of apoptosis inhibition they also display other properties. It is suggested that they play an important role in the processes of proliferation and cellular differentiation. Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the expression of the BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis. Material and methods. The analysis was carried out on RNA samples obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 21 patients with diagnosed atherosclerosis. The specific fragment of the analysed gene was obtained through amplification with the use of cDNA synthesised in the reaction of reverse transcription. The test of expression was conducted with the use of the Real-Time PCR method. In the studied cases, the level of expression of the analysed gene was compared to the level of expression of the reference gene, B2M. Results. The study showed that mRNA of the BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes is present in the cells of patients with atherosclerosis, as well as in the cells of healthy individuals. The cells taken from the patients with atherosclerosis were mainly characterized by an increased gene expression in comparison to the normal cells. Conclusion. Increased BIRC6 and BIRC5 gene expression in the cells of the patients with atherosclerosis can suggest an increased amount of the inhibitor protein BRUCE and survivin, and also decreased sensitivity of cells to apoptosis. In the case of the patients who had significantly higher expression of the BIRC6 gene in lymphocytes compared to the norm, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more common