Małgorzata Markowska, Agnieszka Monika Przychodni, Grażyna Nowak-Starz and Elżbieta Cieśla
This study sought to evaluate the number of those overweight and the rate of obesity among 6- and 7-year-olds living in Poland with regard to their place of residence, the parental level of education and the number of children in the family. The analysis was based on a survey of 64 544 children (33 051 boys and 31 493 girls) living in Poland. Overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass index (BMI) using the IOTF cut-off points. To evaluate the rates of overweight and obesity occurrence in children with regard to family socio-economic status, parental level of education, the number of children in the family, and the place of residence (divided into city and village) was used. ‘Only children’ were the most likely group to be overweight or obese. These children were twice as likely to be obese as their peers living in families with four or more children. Overweight and obesity occurred more often amongst children living in cities rather than those living in rural areas. Moreover, these conditions were more frequent among children whose parents had higher levels of education. The most significant predictors of childhood overweight and obesity were the number of children in the family and the educational level of the mother
Due to an ageing population, local governments are facing new challenges in the field of addressing the housing needs of older people. Seniors are not a homogeneous group; three basic categories may be distinguished in terms of independence level and the resulting needs. The first category would include independent people, the second one - the elderly with limited independence, and in this case it is necessary to adapt their dwellings to the needs of people with partial disabilities, e.g. dedicated housing. The last category is comprised of people with considerable dependence for whom there is a need to create special dwellings such as sheltered housing or assisted living housing. The aim of this paper is to diagnose the housing preferences of the elderly and to explore the solutions of the selected municipalities in the field of addressing the housing needs of seniors. The issue is analyzed based on desk research and information collected within field research in the Warsaw, Poznań and Szczecin urban areas.