Currently, scientists are striving to produce innovative textile materials characterized by special properties. Therefore, attempts have been made to use physical and chemical vapor deposition techniques to modify the surface of textile materials, i.e., nonwovens, fabrics, and knitted fabrics. By using these techniques for modifying the basic materials, researchers have obtained textiles with novel properties, which are used in shielding materials, textronics, or clothing, as well as in specialized accessories. The PVD process can be applied for almost all materials. The physical vapor deposition process allows for obtaining layers of different thicknesses and with various physical and chemical properties. This article is a review of the latest state of the art on the use of various methods of physical vapor deposition in textiles destined for different purposes.
Basalt fibers and fabrics made of these are characterized by excellent thermal and mechanical properties. Therefore, basalt fabrics, due to a good resistance to high temperatures, are frequently applied in the personal protection equipment (PPE). In order to improve their thermal properties and, above all, the contact heat resistance, the process of physical vapor deposition was proposed. The process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) involves producing a coating on a specific substrate as a result of physical deposition of molecules, ions or atoms of the selected chemical compounds. The method selected for the test is the magnetron sputtering. It involves depositing a uniform film of chromium on the surface of the basalt fabric. In order to improve the thermal properties – especially the contact heat resistance, two values of thickness of the chromium layer deposited on the basalt fabric surface were adopted for the test. Covering 1 μm and 5 μm with the chromium layer did not fulfil the expectations and the research will be continued.
The clothing industry is currently focused on 3D virtual fitting. Many companies use size 12 as the core size; however, in recent years the average size has increased. For example, in the United Kingdom, the average size is now 16. Many companies have not updated their core size and often use size 12 as the size they are the most familiar with. The purpose of this paper is to compare real plus size body shapes with artificial avatars in relation to the fabric draping. This paper will investigate, how the body shape changes with an age (body height decreases, skin elasticity is lower, the shoulders are hunched, buttocks sag and fatness pockets are accumulated around the waist area). These factors are not considered in virtual avatars, but have a big impact on virtual fitting.