The effective dose of six herbicidal ionic liquids containing glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] was investigated. Varied biological activity of the tested compounds was observed depending on the type of cation and targeted plant species. In the case of common lambsquarters, the lowest effective dose was obtained for compounds containing didecyldimethylammonium and di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium cations. In the case of white mustard, the lowest ED50 and ED90 values were obtained for the reference compound, which contained glyphosate isopropylamine salt. These parameters were determined using dose efficiency curves based on log-logistic models with three or four parameters. The study indicates that ionic liquids with glyphosate may be used as a new form of this herbicide in the future.
The main estimation and hypothesis testing procedures are presented for experiments conducted in row-column designs of a certain desirable type. It is shown that, under appropriate randomization, these experiments have the convenient orthogonal block structure. Due to this property, the analysis of experimental data can be performed in a comparatively simple way. Relevant simplifying procedures are indicated. The main advantage of the presented methodology concerns the analysis of variance and related hypothesis testing procedures. Under the adopted approach one can perform these analytical methods directly, not by combining results from analyses based on some stratum submodels. Practical application of the presented theory is illustrated by four examples of real experiments in the relevant row-column designs. The present paper is the third in the projected series of publications concerning the analysis of experiments with orthogonal block structure.
This paper provides estimation and hypothesis testing procedures for experiments in split-plot designs. These experiments have been shown to have a convenient orthogonal block structure when properly randomized. Due to this property, the analysis of experimental data can be carried out in a relatively simple manner. Relevant simplification procedures are indicated. According to the adopted approach, the analysis of variance and hypothesis testing procedures can be performed directly, rather than by combining the results of analyses based on some stratum submodels. The practical application of the presented theory is illustrated by examples of real experiments in appropriate split-plot designs. The present paper is the fourth in the planned series of publications on the analysis of experiments with orthogonal block structure.
As a result of intensive changes in plant production and of environmental changes in agrocenoses, certain agrophages, such as slugs, have in recent years been causing ever increasing amounts of damage to crops of agricultural, horticultural and orchard plants. As a result of the European Parliament and Council Directive adopted on 13 January 2009, the countries of Europe have been required to implement integrated plant protection. One of the principles of this protection is the implementation of strategies which minimize the use of chemical pesticides. Moreover, in accordance with decisions of the European Commission, many active substances have been or are to be withdrawn from the list of available pesticides. An example is metaldehyde, which is to be withdrawn from use in EU countries in the next few years (Commission Decision C/2008/7637 of 5 December 2008). It therefore becomes necessary to seek environmentally safe substances and to develop non-chemical methods for protecting plants against harmful slugs.
An alternative to chemical molluscicides is the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Studies have been made of the effectiveness of this biological method in combating Polish populations of the invasive slug species Arion lusitanicus. This was an incomplete multivariate study, i.e. not all variables could be observed for all treatments on all experimental units. Multivariate model of observations has been derived and a method of analysis has been described. The results of these studies provide a basis for the development of environmentally friendly methods of protecting plants against harmful slugs.
The objective of this study was to assess genotype-by-environment interaction for seed glucosinolate content in winter rapeseed cultivars grown in western Poland using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The study concerned 25 winter rapeseed genotypes (15 F1 CMS ogura hybrids, parental lines and two European cultivars: open pollinated Californium and F1 hybrid Hercules), evaluated at five locations in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The seed glucosinolate content of the tested genotypes ranged from 5.53 to 16.80 μmol∙g-1 of seeds, with an average of 10.26 μmol∙g-1. In the AMMI analyses, 48.67% of the seed glucosinolate content variation was explained by environment, 13.07% by differences between genotypes, and 17.56% by genotype-by-environment interaction. The hybrid PN66×PN07 is recommended for further inclusion in the breeding program due to its low average seed glucosinolate content; the restorer line PN18, CMS ogura line PN66 and hybrids PN66×PN18 and PN66×PN21 are recommended because of their stability and low seed glucosinolate content.