Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical inactivity is one of the main pathophysiological factors of MetS subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate if 4-week supervised aerobic training had any impact on anthropometric, metabolic, hemodynamic and arterial wall parameters in MetS subjects.
Design and methods: 57 MetS subjects were randomly selected from a Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk (LitHiR) national primary prevention programme. Hemodynamic, cardiometabolic risk and arterial wall parameters were evaluated after the 4-week supervised aerobic training.
Results: After 4 weeks of aerobic training there was statistically significant decrease in body mass index from 30.58 ± 3.7 to 30.3 ± 3.55 kg/m2 (p = 0.010), waist circumference from 104.24 ± 9.46 to 102.9 ± 9.48 cm (p = 0.003), decrease of LDL cholesterol from 4.21 ± 1.15 to 3.78 ± 1 mmol/l (p = 0.032) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein from 2.01 ± 2.36 to 1.64 ± 1.92 mg/l (p = 0.009), decrease of diastolic blood pressure (BP) from 83.06 ± 10.18 to 80.38 ± 8.98 mmHg (p = 0.015), mean BP from 100.03 ± 10.70 to 97.31 ± 8.88 mmHg (p = 0.027) and aortic stiffness, assessed as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, from 8.34 ± 1.26 to 7.91 ± 1.15 m/s (p = 0.034).
Conclusions: In subjects with MetS even short-duration (4-week) supervised aerobic exercise training is associated with improvement of some anthropometric, metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as the decrease in aortic stiffness. This training modality could be recommended for initiation of physical training and could increase motivation for further physical activity.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of premature death worldwide. More than half of deaths were caused by cardiovascular diseases in 2017 in Lithuania. Primary prevention programmes encourage both medical staff and general population to pay attention to potential health issues as well as attempt to eradicate risk factors causing cardiovascular diseases. “A Funding Programme for the Screening and Preventive Management of the High Cardiovascular Risk Individuals” published in Lithuania has been implemented as of 2006.
Analysis of the results of the programme shows that the prevalent cases of arterial hypertension are gradually declining. However, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia is still not decreasing. The prevalence of other modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors has erratic trends with a slight overall decline. Consequently, mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases has decreased by more than one third among middle-age population over the past 10 years.
Having higher availability of the anti-hypertensive and anti-lipid medications already achieved, the future plans include the aim of further reducing elevated blood pressure and effectively treating dyslipidaemia. In order to implement a strategy that focuses on smoking prevention, promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity, a significant contribution is required from the state authorities.