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Agata Włodarska-Frykowska

Abstract

The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

Open access

Agata Włodarska-Frykowska

Abstract

This article examines migration trends in contemporary Estonia, focusing on migrant movements, legal regulations applying to migrants and national policies dealing with migration. Estonia is a multi-ethnic country in which both immigration and emigration occur on a considerable scale; consequently, understanding migration patterns and trends is particularly important. Historical factors have influenced Estonian society in a way which has necessitated the implementation of integration programmes and strategies aimed at social consolidation. The article features an analysis of the main changes in migration movements in Estonia since it gained independence and presents contemporary tendencies.