Netelia (Prosthodocis) japonica (Uchida, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in the Polish fauna
Netelia (Prosthodocis) japonica (Uchida, 1928) is reported for the first time from Poland on the basis of a female collected in Podlasie. A key to the subgenera of the genus Netelia Gray, 1860 recorded in Poland is provided.
Phytodietus elongator has been recorded from Italy for the first time. The hitherto identified subspecies (geographical forms) of this species, P. elongator elongator and P. elongator decoratus, are considered to be merely extreme examples of the variability of this taxon. A checklist and a key to the Italian species of the genus Phytodietus are provided.
Phytodietus moragai Gauld, 1997, previously known from Costa Rica, is recorded from Ecuador for the first time. This is the second representative of the genus Phytodietus Gravenhorst, 1829 from South America. A description and illustration of the female of P. moragai is provided.
Adult ichneumonids of Hyposoter placidus were reared from caterpillars of the large copper butterfly Lycaena dispar collected in NE Poland, feeding on Rumex confertus, R. hydrolapathum and R. obtusifolius. This is the first record of this parasitoid in the country. We hypothesize that H. placidus may be a factor limiting the abundance of populations of L. dispar, a widespread species but usually occurring in low numbers.
In the presented study, male and female reproductive success was analyzed in relation to the population size, floral display and pollinators’ availability in natural and anthropogenic populations of the orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw. Our results indicated significant differences between all investigated populations in parameters of floral display, including heights and number of flowers per inflorescence, as well the number of flowering individuals and their spatial structure. Additionally, populations differed both in male (pollinia removal) and female (fruit set) reproductive success, but only the fruit set clearly differentiated anthropogenic and natural populations. Despite the average flower number per plant being significantly higher in two of the anthropogenic populations, it was not related to the fruits set, which was significantly lower there. Moreover, our preliminary study concerning the potential pollinators of M. monophyllos showed a higher contribution of flies in natural habitats than in anthropogenic ones. Thus, we can suspect that the main factors influencing the level of female reproductive success in M. monophyllos populations are abundance of effective pollinators, as well as flower visitors, which may have resulted in a different level of pollen discounting in populations. Therefore, further studies concerning breeding system and pollination as important forces that shape demographic processes in M. monophyllos populations are necessary. Our results also indicate that suitable conservation methods in M. monophyllos should always include the preservation of potential pollinators, especially in these new, secondary habitats.