The aim of the paper was to assess the effect of forest fire on the content of total and available forms of zinc, copper, lead, nickel and cadmium, as well as the activity of catalase in soil. The study was performed directly (2012) and a year after the fire (2013). The fire had a significant effect on the content of those heavy metals in surface horizons, however, it did not result in their rapid growth. The concentrations of total forms of metals did not exceed the norms provided for in Regulation of the Polish Minister of the Environment. The soil samples analysed can be considered unpolluted with those metals. The availability coefficients calculated showed an unfavourable higher availability of lead and cadmium over zinc and copper. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of fire on the activity of catalase. Resistance of soil (RS) for catalase demonstrated lower values in the year 2012 as compared with 2013 (except for B soil). The calculated values of time index (TI) pointed to the activation of the enzyme a year after the fire. The Ward clustering method facilitated determining similarities between the sites in two research years (2012 and 2013) with the selected soil parameters. With the PCA method a negative effect of fire was identified.
One of the major factors determining hazard for humans, animals and plants is the increased content of trace elements in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of mercury in surface and subsurface horizons of alluvial soils intensively used for agriculture in aspect of relationship between soil components and Hg amount bound by the soil. The results showed that there was no mercury contamination and dominant component binding this element in analyzed soils was clay fraction. The determined concentrations of mercury were close to the geochemical background level.
The aim of the study was to determine types of soil-forming processes of the selected soils of Northern Poland, basing on the content and profile distribution of iron forms, and the calculated indicators of pedogenesis. The results confirmed the previous statements on the basis of morphological and textural analyses, hypothesis of soils genesis, thereby proving the usefulness of this kind of research in determining these processes. This research showed the beginning of brunification process in the Endogleyic Phaeozem, unnoticed in textural and morphological analysis, in which only the gleization process was previously identified. The content and distribution of iron forms (Fed, Feo, Fec, Fes) in the profiles of the studied soils were characteristic for the type of soil and soil-forming process.
The paper presents the research results for the soils sampled from the area located in the eastern part of the Chodzieskie Lakes, between the Middle Noteć River Valley and the Wełna River Valley, the right tributary of the Warta River. The research involved 7 soil samples from the surface horizons, allocated to the cultivation of various plant species (cereals and vegetable crops). The following were determined in the soil material: the content of phytoavailable forms of selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Mn, active and available to plants phosphorus against the activity of selected oxydo-reduction and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil under the vegetable crops showed a very high richness in phosphorus available to plants, which must have been related to an intensive fertilisation. There were identified relatively low contents of the available forms of the heavy metals investigated, the fact that points to their natural content in soil, which triggered the inhibition of neither the oxydo-reduction nor hydrolytic enzymes.
The aim of the conducted research was the evaluation of the influence of increased pH on the content and mobility of nickel in arable soils in the surroundings of Małogoszcz Cement Plant. The physico-chemical properties of the investigated soils were determined by the methods commonly used in soil laboratories. The total content of Ni was determined after mineralization in the mixture of HF and HClO4 acids, and the content of forms available for plants, after the extraction with DTPA solution, using ASA method. The investigated soils are characterized as loamy sands or sands (PTG 2008). These soils have the content of C-organic in the range of 10.3.24.2 g·kg-1 in the surface horizons and 184.108.40.206 g·kg-1 in the subsurface horizons. The pH values allow to classify these soils as alkaline. In all of the investigated soils calcium carbonate occurs. The values of total content of nickel were in the range of 220.127.116.11 mg·kg-1 in surface horizons and 18.104.22.168 mg·kg-1 in subsurface horizons, which allows to classify these soils as soil with natural nickel content. The content of Ni-DTPA were in the range of 0.06.0.26 mg·kg.1. The sequential analysis of the obtained results indicates on significant statistically positive correlation between the total content of Ni and C-organic, which has the value of 0.648143 and between the content of Ni-DTPA and the content of fraction with Ø<0.002 mm, with the value of 0.581113 on p=0.05.
Increasing human activity affects urban ecosystem, including soils. The objective of the study were examine the content of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese in soils of city parks and green areas from Bydgoszcz agglomeration, north Poland, estimate their forms and mobility, characterize distribution within soil profile, and estimate their origin – anthropogenic or natural. Three green areas from the older part of the city were selected for the study. Multistep sequential extraction method was conducted for the separation of seven metal fractions. It is concluded that soil studied were contaminated mainly by zinc and lead. These metals exist mainly in relatively non mobile forms i.e. associated with amorphous and crystalline iron oxides and with soil organic matter. The distribution within soil depth varied due to the elution process and variation of mixed soil material and additives.
Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in selected motor parameters of highly skilled field hockey players during the training macrocycle. It was assumed that the changes in the parameters examined in the study would correspond with the hypothesised variation related to the adaptive changes that were expected to take place. Material and methods. The study involved eleven field hockey players from the KS AZS-AWF Poznań club (age = 22.3 ± 1.1 years; height = 176.5 ± 4.0 cm; weight = 75.2 ± 6.3 kg; %FM = 12.2 ± 3.9%; VO2max = 55.4 ± 4.85 ml/kg/min). The dates of the measurements were agreed on with the trainers, who played an active role in the study, and were consistent with the cycle of planned measurements that were aimed at assessing the implementation of training/competition loads (two measurements during the preparatory period and one during the competition period). We examined the fundamental elements of motor preparation that are considered important in field hockey, that is speed endurance, running speed, and aerobic endurance. These assessments were supplemented by the measurements of lactate concentration in capillary blood as well as those of jumping ability and agility. Results. In most cases, the changes in the actual results corresponded with the hypothesised values adopted for the training. The relationships between the levels of particular parameters of the players’ motor skills were adequate to a great extent. Conclusion. The effects of the training observed both for the entire team and for individual players were generally in line with the goals of the training/ competition loads implemented. Any discrepancies that were found were identified and corrected by regulating individual exercise loads and were monitored in subsequent measurements.