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Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Although liquid-liquid extraction methods are currently being applied in many areas such as analytical chemistry, biochemical engineering, biochemistry, and biological applications, accessibility and usability of microfluidics in practical daily life fields are still bounded. Suspended microfluidic devices have the potential to lessen the obstacles, but the absence of robust design rules have hampered their usage. The primary objective of this work is to design and fabricate a microfluidic device to quantitatively monitor the drug uptake of cancer cells. Liquid-liquid extraction is used to quantify the drug uptake. In this research work, designs and simulations of two different microfluidic devices for carrying out multiplex solution experiments are proposed to test their efficiency. These simplified miniaturized chips would serve as suspended microfluidic metabolites extraction platform as it allows extracting the metabolites produced from the cancer cells as a result of applying a specific drug type for a certain period of time. These devices would be fabricated by making polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds from the negative master mold using soft lithography. Furthermore, it can leverage to provide versatile functionalities like high throughput screening, cancer cell invasions, protein purification, and small molecules extractions. As per previous studies, PDMS has been depicting better stability with various solvents and has proved to be a reliable and cost effective material to be used for fabrication, though the sensitivity of the chip would be analyzed by cross contamination and of solvents within the channels of device.

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Gold electrodes are often not suitable for dopamine measurements as dopamine creates a non-conducting polymer layer on the surface of the electrodes, which leads to increased amount of electrode passivity with the gradual increase in voltammograms measurement. This work presents the impedance spectroscopy and cyclic-voltammetry comparative study for dopamine detection with two modifications for the surface of Au electrodes; cysteamine and mercaptopropionic acid for thermally bonded and ultrasonically welded microfluidic chips, respectively. The effects of optimized tubing selection, bonding techniques, and cleaning methods of the devices with KOH solution played crucial role for improvements in dopamine detection, which are observed in the results. Furthermore, comparison for the modification with unmodified chips, and finding the unknown concentration of dopamine solution using flow injection techniques, is also illustrated.