Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes: A Short Review of the Literature
The prevalence of diabetes and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Even if today it is an accepted fact that diet and reduced physical activity are causes of obesity epidemic, sleep disturbances are seen as risk factors for obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Regardless of the nature of the relation between sleep apnea and diabetes, the observed association have important clinical, epidemiological and public health implications. Clinical studies have shown that the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is high, both in diabetes and sleep apnea, overcoming the prevalence observed in general population. Thus, understanding the implications of sleep apnea in alteration of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk could contribute to the prevention of both micro- and macrovascular complications.