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  • Author: Adriana Neagoș x
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Outcomes of mucociliary clearance and rhinomanometrical changes in nasal pathology

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the nasal pathologies over nasal mucociliary clearance and rhinomanometric parameters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. This is a retrospective analytical observational clinical study during a period of 6 months, between 2014 and 2015. 123 subjects, 63 of whom had nasal pathology and 60 of whom were healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of nasal pathology was made based on clinical examination, nasal endoscopy and anterior rhinomanometry. A methylene blue test was used to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

RESULTS. The subjects with nasal pathology had nasal septum deviation (No=50), chronic rhinitis (No=42), rhinosinusitis (No=15) and nasal polyposis (No=17). The mean total air flow in inspiration in nasal pathology patients group was 546.7 ml/s (millilitre/second), with a median of 594 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 865.5 ml/s, with a median of 866.5 ml/s. In expiration, the mean air flow in those with nasal pathology was 603.9 ml/s and a median of 611 ml/s, comparing with the control group who had the mean air flow of 871.1 ml/s and a median around 872 ml/s. The mean time from the application of methylene blue liquid to first seeing it in patients with nasal pathology was 23.41 minutes for the right nostril and 23.32 minutes for the left nostril, comparing with the control group who had the mean of mucociliary clearance of 6.76 minutes for the right nostril and 6.93 minutes for the left one.

CONCLUSION. The results obtained in anterior rhinomanometry and methylene blue liquid test showed that nasal pathology does affect nasal physiology and it is an important factor to evaluate the mucociliary clearance.

Open access
The value of posterior rhinomanometry in evaluating patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Nowadays, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea are the most common sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) found in the medical practice and they are estimated to affect approximately 4% of men and 2% of women in the middle-aged workforce. There are some ENT pathologies that are involved in snoring, and also in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The nose plays an important part in both breathing and SRBD. The aim of this study was to determine the role of posterior rhinomanometry in the diagnoses of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present a retrospective observational study that took place during a three-year period, between 2009 and 2012. In this study were included 110 subjects, who have undergone polysomnographic investigations, as well as an ENT clinical examination focused on endoscopy and posterior rhinomanometry evaluation.

RESULTS. The mean age was 46.09 ± 10.91 years, the mean height was 177.58 ± 10.02 cm and the mean weight was 98.45 ± 17.74 kg. Analysing these results, we found a significant correlation between them and the severity of the sleep pathology. The posterior rhinomanometry results were correlated with nasal allergic rhinitis (p = 0.06) and not correlated with other nasal pathology, such as nasal septum deviation. The changes in the size and shape of the tongue base or epiglottis proved to have an important impact upon rhinomanometric values, with a statistically significant value (p = 0.03, respectively p = 0.08).

CONCLUSION. All diagnostic methods must be interpreted in connection with each other.

Open access
Misdiagnosis of laryngeal sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma – case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Even if it is a rare variant growth pattern of squamous cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma seems to have almost the same clinical manifestations and risk factors as conventional squamous cell carcinoma.

CASE REPORT. This paper presents a complex case of a 59-year-old female patient known with laryngeal papillomatosis, who presented in our Department for moderate to severe inspiratory dyspnea associated with dysphonia and difficulty in swallowing. We mention that the patient had been previously evaluated by a pneumologist for apnea, snoring and daytime sleepiness and diagnosed and treated for sleep apnea syndrome. Clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathologic examinations revealed the association of upper airway obstruction with laryngeal cancer. Surgical intervention consisted in total laryngectomy and selective neck dissection associated with permanent tracheotomy. The microscopic appearance was that of a bilateral transglottic sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma without metastasis in the right lymph node.

CONCLUSION. It is important to evaluate the clinical and imagistic status of patients with laryngeal tumors in order to make a correct decision concerning their treatment policy. We emphasize that cooperation between multiple departments is absolutely necessary in order to adequately resolve, explore, diagnose and treat patients with laryngeal pathology.

Open access
Risk Factors for Congenital Hearing Loss: Which Are the Most Relevant?

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital hearing loss is a multifactorial disease that affects mostly premature newborns exposed to certain risk factors. The recent widespread introduction of newborn hearing screening in Tîrgu Mureş, Romania prompted the need for a multidisciplinary centralized study on the subject.

Case series presentation: We collected data from 340 neonates born in 2014 who had undergone neonatal hearing screening with otoacoustic emissions. Our focus group consisted of 137 neonates with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks. We collected data on the pregnancy, birth, and perinatal period, and then analyzed the impact of infections, treatments — with or without ototoxic potential, hypoxia, mechanical ventilation, intrauterine malnutrition, and the presence of malformations. Premature neonates showed a significantly higher number of REFER results than those with a normal gestational age. The rates of low birthweight, head circumference, and infant length; low Apgar scores; hypoxia in the perinatal period; the presence of placental pathology, mechanical ventilation, and perinatal infections; and the concomitant potentially ototoxic treatment were significantly higher in the REFER group. The age of the mother, bilirubin levels, and oxytocin use during birth did not prove to be relevant.

Conclusions: Known risk factors can cause hearing loss in a considerable number of newborns and mandate a multidisciplinary approach to the problem at hand. The referral of these patients to an ENT specialist and their correct management according to an individualized hearing recovery plan is crucial

Open access
The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. This study examines the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and the pharyngeal parameters using the ultrasound of the submental region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. For this study, data obtained from 40 patients, who had undergone investigations in the Galenus Medical Centre in order to diagnose sleep apnea, was analyzed. The following parameters were compared: the transverse diameter of the retrolingual region, the transverse diameter of the retropalatal region and the tongue base thickness. These regions were measured at different moments of respiration such as: during forced expiration, during forced inspiration and while the patients performed Müller’s Manoeuvre. The neck circumference, the body mass index of patients and the severity of sleep apnea obtained from polysomnography were analyzed.

RESULTS. The evaluation of the results revealed: severe obstructive sleep apnea in 16 patients, respectively moderate severity in 10 patients, mild apnea in 4 patients, and no obstructive sleep apnea in 10 patients. Statistically significant results (p<0.05) were found after comparing the parameters obtained in patients with severe apnea versus the parameters in patients without apnea, with mild or respectively moderate apnea.

CONCLUSION. Based on the results obtained, we consider that cervical ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of severe obstructive apnea, identifying the pathological changes of the anatomical structures that basically cause this category of disease. Due to the fact that in our country ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive method, being also a non-irradiating, repeatable and accessible method, it should be more widely applied also in the field of otorhinolaryngology in order to view structures accessible to this type of imaging.

Open access
Particularities Of Sleep Habits In School Children From Tîrgu Mureș

Abstract

Introduction: The international literature gives us very variable data regarding sleep disorders and the complaints related to this pathology. However, interpreting these data is difficult because of the ethnical and cultural differences and the numerous possibilities of the assessments. In this paper the authors examined and evaluated the main parameters which characterize the sleep habits of a group of children in Romania, as well as the complaints related to it, which could influence the quality of sleeping.

Material and method: Distributing questionnaires amongst children in Tîrgu Mureș. We used different questionnaires, based on the Epworth and Conner’s scores, for children between 11-14 and 15-18 years and for their parents.

Results: The gender ratio was approximately equal, the height and weight of the children was within the framework of Romanian standards. The most frequent nocturnal complaints were: problems with falling asleep, agitation, awakenings during the night. The most frequent daytime complaints: fatigue when in school, difficulty waking up in the morning and mood swings. The results showed significant differences between weekday sleeping hours and weekend sleep time (p = 0.0022).

Conclusion: Sleep habits change with age, which is a physiological effect. Other factors that modify sleeping habits in a negative way and reduce the time spent sleeping, play a crucial role in the occurrence of persistent fatigue, reduced quality school performance and even of a depraved life quality.

Open access