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  • Author: Adrian Tudor Stan x
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Silver Nanotechnology — the Future in Caries Therapy? A Report of Two Cases

Abstract

Introduction: Dental decays remain the most common and rampant biofilm-dependent oral disorders. Influencing the delicate dynamic between demineralization and remineralization is a big challenge in clinical practice, and nanotechnology is considered a viable solution. The therapeutic management of caries, which includes nanotechnology, has two big approaches, an antibacterial one and a remineralizing one. Silver is recognized to display a powerful toxicity to a large variety of micro-organisms, thus silver-based composites have been widely used in several bactericidal applications.

Case report: We present our attempts and results in using silver nanoparticle solutions on a 14-year-old and a 34-year-old patient with dental decays and no previous dental pain. One of the cases was treated with chlorhexidine 2% and the other with Nanocare Plus, as antimicrobial agents. In both cases we recorded decreased values of the bacterial burden in comparison with the initial values.

Conclusion: This two-case presentation compared the antibacterial effect of two antibacterial solutions, providing useful information regarding novel therapies for dental caries, but further research in this domain is needed.

Open access
Digital Dentistry — Digital Impression and CAD/CAM System Applications

Abstract

Digital imprint and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) systems offer several benefits compared to traditional techniques. The use of a CAD/CAM system to scan preparations and generate restorations in-office, removes a second appointment for the patient. The existence of precision benefits in using complete systems and chairside scanning systems, has been proven. CAD/CAM restorations have a good longevity and meet the accepted clinical parameters. New digital impression methods are presently accessible, and before long, the long-awaited goal of sparing patients of one the most unpleasant practices in clinical dentistry, acquiring dental impressions, will be exchanged by intraoral digital scanning. CAD/CAM systems existing nowadays, can feed data through accurate digital scans created from plaster models, straight to manufacturing systems that can shape ceramic or resin restorations with no requirement of a physical copy of the prepared, adjacent, and antagonist teeth.

Open access
Original Research. Photoacoustic Microscopy in Dental Medicine

Abstract

Introduction: Photoacoustic microscopy, also known as optoacoustic imaging, is a comparatively new method of investigation in dental medicine, which uses a laser-generated ultrasound (short laser pulses) to achieve images for interpretation. Photoacoustic microscopy can be used in a broad spectrum, from detecting tooth decay at its earliest stages to dental anatomy analysis. Material and methods: The energy emitted by the photoacoustic pulse is moderately absorbed by the target and exchanged into heat, leading to a local transitory temperature upsurge. The tension propagates and grows as ultrasonic waves, distinguished by the ultrasonic transducers which are planted apart from the tissue. The photoacoustic microscope has a tunable dye laser which passes through a condensing lens, an objective and ultimately an ultrasonic transducer attached to an acoustic lens to capture and receive information about the scanned probe from a sample moved on the X, Y dimensions. Results: The precise anatomy of layered concentric structures can be clearly observed in photoacoustic microscopy. The image value of the inner layer can be higher, indicating strong optical absorption, while the image value of the outer layer is lower, indicating weaker optical absorption. Meanwhile, the inner layer has the exact same size as the dentin structure and the outer layer has the exact same size as the enamel structure in this cross-section. Conclusions: The photoacoustic microscope (all-optical) comes out to be a future and promising tool for detecting early-stage caries and lesions on the surface of the teeth, where micro-leakage occurs at the interface of tooth restoration, and also the anatomy of dental tissues.

Open access
Detection of Myocardial Injury Using miRNAs Expression as Genetic Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. At present, there are many ways to diagnose this pathophysiology. The greatest disadvantages related to current biomarkers are their low specificity, low selectivity and low accuracy. A new method, extensively studied recently, is the expression of miRNAs, used as genetic biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents an update of miRNAs species expression that can serve as early diagnostic biomarkers and for the continuous monitoring of patients with cardiovascular disease.

Open access
Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

Open access
Use of Circulating and Cellular miRNAs Expression in Forensic Sciences

Abstract

The current practice in the field of forensic medicine imposes the use of modern investigation techniques. The complexity of laboratory investigation methods needed for a final result of the investigation in forensic medicine needed new biomarkers of higher specificity and selectivity. Such biomarkers are the microRNAs (miRNAs), short, non-coding RNAs composed of 19–24 nucleotides. Their characteristics, such as high stability, selectivity, and specificity for biological fluids, differ from tissue to tissue and for certain pathologies, turning them into the ideal candidate for laboratory techniques used in forensic medicine. In this paper, we wish to highlight the biochemical properties and the usefulness of miRNAs in forensic medicine.

Open access