Due to the rapid development of geothermal technologies, the problem of efficient and proper evaluation of soil thermal conductivity becomes extremely important. Factors mostly affecting the soil conductivity are the conductivity of solid phase and the degree of saturation. The former one is mainly affected by the mineral composition, in particular, by the content of quartz whose conductivity is the highest one among all the minerals forming soil skeleton. Organic matter, because of its relatively low conductivity, influences the solid conductivity as well. The problem addressed in the paper is the influence of mentioned factors on temperature changes in the vicinity of thermally loaded structure embedded in the soil medium. Numerical simulations are carried out for different values of soil thermal conductivity resulting from various quartz contents and degrees of saturation. In addition, a weak coupled - heat and water transport - problem is considered.
In this work, the complex microstructure of the soil solid, at the microscale, is modeled by prescribing the spatial variability of thermal conductivity coefficient to distinct soil separates. We postulate that the variation of thermal conductivity coefficient of each soil separate can be characterized by some probability density functions: fCl(λ), fSi(λ), fSa(λ), for clay, silt and sand separates, respectively. The main goal of the work is to recover/identify these functions with the use of back analysis based on both computational micromechanics and simulated annealing approaches. In other words, the following inverse problem is solved: given the measured overall thermal conductivities of composite soil find the probability density function f(λ) for each soil separate. For that purpose, measured thermal conductivities of 32 soils (of various fabric compositions) at saturation are used. Recovered functions f(λ) are then applied to the computational micromechanics approach; predicted conductivities are in a good agreement with laboratory results.
In the paper, a numerical study of the size of representative volume element for the linear elasticity problem is performed. The calculations are carried out for three different types of random microstructures: checkerboard, the Ising model microstructure and Debye microstructure. It is postulated and then verified that there exists a relation between the morphology of microstructure contained in the lineal-path function and the minimum RVE size. It is confirmed, on the basis of numerical examples, that for all the microstructures considered the largest lineal-path can be treated as the size of RVE
Recently, there is an increasing need for accurate and rapid thermal measurement of soils. Within a variety of available methods a needle probe test is most widely used. The needle probe method was standardized for the measurement of thermal conductivity of soils and soft rocks. In the paper, two different interpretation methods of the needle probe test were used for determination of thermal conductivity of selected soils. The first method (ASTM D5334-05 Standard approach) takes into account only the data which are recorded during heating while the second approach is based on fitting the known analytical solution to the data obtained within both heating and cooling phases. The soil samples used were classified as clayey ones. Laboratory tests were performed using the KD2Pro thermal conductivity meter (Decagon Devices) with a TR-1 sensor. The main goal of the paper is to show that the selection of interpretation method is very important and may lead to significant differences in resulting thermal conductivities.
The paper deals with the problem of shape optimization of underground tunnel excavation. In the pioneering work of Sałustowicz, the elliptic shape was assumed a priori to be an optimal one and then a determination of suitable semi-axes ratio was only the question. Two cases were distinguished there: self-supporting excavation and excavation with the structural support. An evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) procedure, employed in 2005 to optimize shape of underground excavation, confirms the assumptions concerning the case of self-supporting excavations. The case of supported excavation is considered in the present work. Optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA) is incorporated in the study. An energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors’ previous papers is also adopted. Itasca FLAC software is utilized in numerical examples. Four different in situ stress ratios are investigated. The numerical results obtained confirm that the optimal shape tends to be an ellipse. The semi-axes ratio demonstrates compliance with the assumptions already existing in literature.
The needle probe test, as a thermal conductivity measurement method, has become very popular in recent years. In the present study, the efficiency of this methodology, for the case of composite materials, is investigated based on the numerical simulations. The material under study is a two-phase composite with periodic microstructure of “matrix-inclusion” type. Two-scale analysis, incorporating micromechanics approach, is performed. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite considered is found by the solution of the appropriate boundary value problem stated for the single unit cell. Next, numerical simulations of the needle probe test are carried out. In this case, two different locations of the measuring sensor are considered. It is shown that the “equivalent” conductivity, derived from the probe test, is strongly affected by the location of the sensor. Moreover, comparing the results obtained for different scales, one can notice that the “equivalent” conductivity cannot be interpreted as the effective one for the composites considered. Hence, a crude approximation of the effective property is proposed based on the volume fractions of constituents and the equivalent conductivities derived from different sensor locations.
In the paper, the influence of different types of bedding and backfill soil surrounding underground sewage duct on its deformation was analysed. Impact of increased soil lateral pressure was examined by considering the construction of an embankment nearby the underground pipeline. Numerical computations of three different variants of bedding and backfill soil surrounding the pipe were carried out. Displacements and deformation of the pipe were calculated using the finite element method with adoption of elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model of soil. Subsequent stages of the construction were taken into account. Shear strength reduction method was applied to evaluate the factor of safety of the entire system. Finally, the results and conclusions were depicted.
The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Małopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Małopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2–6 years, 7–9 years and 10–16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in alp activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Małopolski horses.