Currently, the blueberry crop systems are continuous diversifing due to the growing demand for fruit on the market as well as the willingness of farmers to invest in profitable blueberries business. The need to extend the fresh-consumption period of blueberry fruits has made crop protection systems be considered appropriate for high-quality and valuable fruits. In the present work, we have proposed to compare the economic efficiency of three blueberry production systems as follows: the normal intensive cultural system in beds, the superintensive cultural system in pots and the superintensive cultural system in pots and plastic covered (high tunnel). The analyze of the cost and profitability of blueberry has been done according to the crop system, taking into consideration several elements such as: the number of plants per hectare, the total duration of the exploitation, the value of the investment, the yield and the cost of production etc. Further more, considering the average sale price of the blueberry fruits in Romania, we have calculated the net annual return, the annual return rate, the cost recovery period, total operating profit, economic return on investment, and average return on investment. We observed that as much the degree of intensification has increased, the value of investment was higher and the spendings has increased too. Blueberry pot production systems with or without plastic protection are especially recommended for smaller surfaces, which in this way can boost the value and their economic potential.
Grafting berries is a topic untouched by researchers or practitioners till now in Romania due to the convenient and widely spread way of classic propagation methods. Nevertheless, the positive effect of grafted plants in commercial orchards is well known at many other species. Traits like precocity, uniformity, fruit size and yield stability is desired to be achieved in this manner. By grafting berries, we look forward to eliminate the actual shortcomings of the traditional crop systems, mainly generated by bushy crown shape that requires large distance between the plants, difficulties in mowing or weeding process along the rows, pruning and harvest operation in a uncomfortable arch position, discontinuous application of pesticides inside the bush etc. In this regard, different methods and trials have been conducted in the last two years at the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest in order to eliminate these bottlenecks in the berry technology trough grafted plants.
The objective of preservation is to keep fruit fresh as long as possible after harvesting, without major physical, chemical or biological changes in their composition. The experimental factors underlying it the organization scheme are: A Factor - apple varieties: ‘Idared’, ‘Goldrush’, ‘Florina’, ‘Pinova’, ‘Dalinette’, ‘Golden reinderes‘,‘Golden lassa‘,‘Ariane‘; B factor - storage methods, with three graduations: classical method - low temperature and high humidity (1-4ºC; humidity 85-90%), Janny MT box storage method (1-4 ºC; 95-100% humidity; O2 1-3%; CO2 2-5%), fruit control equipment box-pallets (1- 4ºC; 90-95% humidity; O2 1-3%; CO2 2-5%) and factor C - fruit storage period -at 3, 4 and 5 months after harvest respectively. On the average of the cultivars taken in the study, on observe the tendency to increase the total dry mater and total sugar content, and decrease the total tritrable acidity and vitamin C with the prolongation of the fruit storage period.
Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus) are distinguished by their protein, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, etc.) and inulin content. Inulin can be used in the diet of diabetics as a substitute of sugar, without having an impact on blood glucose. At the same time, an international study had shown that due to their inulin content, regular consumption of Jerusalem artichoke tubers can help to prevent type 2 diabetes. In this paper are presented the results of the researches performed to achieve a functional ingredient (powder) with high nutritional value by processing of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Thus, the Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Red Jerusalem artichoke and White Jerusalem artichoke varieties) were subjected to a convective drying process at 50°C, to protect bioactive components (vitamins, phenolic compounds, etc.) to a moisture content that allow their milling and turning them into powder and, at the same time, their stability in terms of quality. The achieved functional ingredient was evaluated sensory, physicchemically and microbiologically. The powder obtained from Jerusalem artichoke tubers is characterized by their inulin-type fructans (51.60... 57.45%), crude fiber (6.85...8.27%), total polyphenols (18.51... 44.03 mg GAE/g), proteins (8.75...9.26%), iron (12.45...13.88 mg/100g), potassium (1905.44...2100.35 mg/100g), calcium (50.21...57.45mg/100g), magnesium (84.55...89.95mg/100g) and phosphorus content (300.12...345.35 mg/100g). At the same time, powder achieved from Jerusalem artichoke tubers has antioxidant potential. Due to its complex biochemical composition, the functional ingredient achieved from Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to fortify food and also as a sweetening agent for products destined to diabetics.