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  • Author: Adela Nechifor-Boilă x
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I.A. Nechifor-Boilă, Angela Borda, Andrada Loghin, Adela Nechifor-Boilă and C. Chibelean

Abstract

Objective: Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) is the main sequence in the multiparametric prostate MRI protocol together with T2 and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1, leading to detection rates up to 60% in prostate cancer diagnosis. However, the use of intravenous contrast can have severe side-effects, making the use of unenhanced MRI sequences essential. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of DWI as a standalone MRI technique for prostate cancer diagnosis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study at our department (09.2014-05.2015) and formed a study lot consisting in five prostate cancer patients that were scheduled for radical prostatectomy. Multiparametric MRI was performed (with DWI and T2 sequences) and the images were interpreted according to the PI-RADS system. The final histopathological result after prostatectomy served as gold standard. Results: A series of 9 lesions were detected and analyzed on DWI. At qualitative interpretation, DWI had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 50%. The corresponding positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.71 and 0.286, respectively (p=0.417). ADC analysis revealed a mean value of 1.2*10-3mm2/s for the benign lesions while the corresponding value was 0.8*10-3 for the malignant ones, regardless of tumor size and Gleason scoring. Conclusion: DWI is a feasible technique in the current clinical environment, with a good sensitivity and a medium specificity. Furthermore, an association to the anatomical T2 sequence could enhance the diagnostic efficiency of DWI and should be assessed in larger studies.

Open access

Adela Nechifor-Boilă, Edit Dee and Angela Borda

Abstract

Introduction. The encapsulated, non-invasive subtype of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) represents approximately 10% to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Many studies over the past decade have shown that these tumors carry an indolent clinical course, with no recurrence, even in patients treated by lobectomy. Their reclassification as neoplasms with “very low malignant potential” has recently been suggested by an international group of experts and a new terminology was proposed: “non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP). However, a diagnosis of NIFTP is still challenging for many pathologists in daily practice. Presentation of case series. By presenting six illustrative cases of NIFTP, this article aims to highlight the diagnostic criteria and the burden difficulties when dealing with NIFTP cases. Characteristic histological features, inclusion and exclusion criteria for NIFTP, as well as sampling guidelines and differential diagnosis challenges are all discussed. Conclusions. The diagnosis of NIFTP is not straightforward and requires meeting strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total sampling of the tumor capsule in these cases is mandatory in order to exclude invasion (capsular and/or vascular). A diagnosis of NIFTP promotes a less-aggressive patient management that is, no need for completion thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine therapy.

Open access

Adela Nechifor-Boilă, Ancuţa Elena Zahan, Oana Căpraru, Ramona Cătană, Andreea Fișus and Nicole Berger

Abstract

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of some distinctive morphological parameters in predicting the extrathyroidal extension, as marker of aggressiveness, in a series of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) cases. Material and methods: All consecutive PTMC cases, sized ≥ 5mm, registered at the Department of Pathology, Tîrgu-Mureș Emergency County Hospital from January 2002 to December 2013 were re-evaluated. The following histological features were noted: the multifocality, the extrathyroidal extension, the histologic variant, the tumor’s border (well circumscribed versus infiltrative), the PTC nuclear features (well developed versus subtle), the tumor associated stromal reaction (fibrosis/desmoplasia/sclerosis versus none of these changes), the presence of “plump pink” cells, psammoma bodies, intratumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, cystic change, back-to-back arrangement, intratumoral multinucleated giant cells and lymph node involvement. Results: Our study included 72 PTMC cases, summing up to a total of 80 PTMC foci. We have shown that extrathyroidal extension is significantly associated with the presence of “plump pink”cells (p=0.0019), well developed nuclear features of PTC (p=0.018) and tumor associated stromal reaction (fibrosis/dezmoplazia/sclerosis) (p<0.0001). Other parameters were more prevalent among PTMC foci with extrathyroidal extension, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Our results pointed out the importance of a distinct set of morphological microscopical parameters, predictive for extrathyroidal extension in PTMC cases (“plump pink” cells, well developed PTC nuclear features, tumor associated stromal reaction, infiltrative tumor borders and conventional PTC histology). All these parameters are important to be mentioned in the histopathological reports, as they might be associated with a more aggressive biological behaviour.

Open access

Ancuța Elena Zahan, Adela Nechifor Boilă, Ionela Pașcanu, Septimiu Voidăzan, Ramona Cătană, Andreea Fișus and Angela Borda

Abstract

Background: Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) defines a group of papillary thyroid carcinomas, incidentally discovered, measuring 1 cm or less. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence and the pathological characteristics of PTMCs in our institution in the last 25 years, with special emphasis on the prognostic factors related to PTMCs. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective, cohort study on 255 PTMCs, registered in the Department of Pathology, Tîrgu-Mureş Emergency County Hospital between 1990 and 2014. Results: A significant increase in the incidence of PTMCs was observed in the 2004-2014 period, compared to 1990-2003 (7.6%, 229 PTMCs/3005 thyroid specimens vs. 1.2%, 23 PTMCs/1885 thyroid specimens). Conventional PTMCs accounted for most of PTMC cases (n=123 cases, 48.2%), followed by the follicular variant of PTC (n=117 cases, 45.9%). The increasing incidence of PTMCs was associated with a significant increase in the routine number of blocks sampled per case over the study period (R2 =0.72, p < 0.001). By means of the univariate and multivariate analysis, three risk factors were predictive for extrathyroidal extension in PTMCs: multifocality (Odds ratio [OR] 4.97, p-0.002), tumor size ≥ 5mm (OR 8.97, p-0.008) and lymph node involvement (OR 17.66 p<0.005). Conclusion: The incidence of PTMCs has revealed a significant increasing trend in our institution over the last 25 years. Multifocality, lymph node involvement and tumor size ≥ 5mm were found to be risk factors for extrathyroidal extension. These prognostic factors must be evaluated and clearly mentioned in the pathological report, to help a correct estimation of biological potential of the lesion and an appropriate postoperative management.