Olivenite-Adamite Solid Solution From Oxidation Zone in Rędziny (West Sudetes, Poland)
An extensive hydrothermal polymetallic mineralization with a well developed oxidation zone rich in secondary minerals occurs in dolostones several hundred meters from the Karkonosze granite at Rędziny. Using XRD and FTIR methods, mineral phases representing transitional members of the olivenite-adamite solid solution have been identified. Electron microprobe analyses reveal the most common varieties to be zincian olivenite and cuprous adamite with compositions ranging from (Cu1.17Zn0.83)(AsO4)(OH) to (Zn1.38Cu0.62)(AsO4)(OH). The two minerals are subordinate in the weathering zone which can be characterized as having been a zone of low Cu2+ and Zn2+ activity and with mineralizing solutions of increased pH. A high Ca2+ concentration due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonate rocks resulted in the expansion of the stability field of another arsenate, conichalcite (or Zn-bearing conichalcite), which is a common mineral there.
In the Permian rhyodacite quarry at Zalas near Krakow, southern Poland, thallium-bearing Mn oxides occur in a small fault zone cutting Middle Jurassic sandy limestone poorly encrusted by an oxidized polymetallic mineralization. The encrustation comprises sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, covellite, galena, marcasite), native bismuth, hematite, goethite, cuprite, mottramite, iodargyrite, unrecognized Cu sulphates and Bi oxychlorides as supergene minerals, barite and rare tiny grains of gold. It is most likely connected with rejuvenation of Early-Paleozoic faults during the Alpine orogeny on the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Rare Tlbearing Mn oxides occur in an outside zone of the encrustations, filling small fractures and voids in limestone forming the fault breccia. Tl contents, reaching 20.82wt% as Tl2O, exceed by more than two orders of magnitude those reported in similar minerals before, making the oxides unique on a world scale. The Tl-bearing Mn oxides from Zalas reflect intensive weathering of an older Tl-bearing sulphide mineralization in an arid climate, involving saline fluids delivered to the groundwater system as the nappe structure of the Carpathians was developing during the Sava tectonic phase Oligocene/Miocene boundary.
Occurrence of Sulphides in Sowia Dolina Near Karpacz (SW Poland) - An Example of ore Mineralization in the Contact Aureole of the Karkonosze Granite
The authors studied the poorly-known, uneconomic sulphide mineralization site in Sowia Dolina near Karpacz. Host rocks are hornfelses of the Velká Úpa schist series, which belongs to the Izera-Kowary Unit. Ore minerals assemblage includes: pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena and marcasite, accompanied by ilmenite and rutile. The oldest sulphide is high-temperature pyrrhotite crystallized at about 600°C, which is in good agreement with the temperature range of contact metamorphic conditions, revealed by muscovitesillimanite transformation. Low-temperature pyrrhotite and other sulphides formed at about 390°C (arsenopyrite geothermometer) down to 265°C (pyrrhotite geothermometer), whereas fluid inclusions studies of vein quartz demonstrated the temperature range 380-150°C. Mineralization in Sowia Dolina is similar to other ore hydrothermal deposits known from the proximal or distal contact zone of the Karkonosze granite.
Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).
Preliminary sulphur isotope data are presented for selected ore deposits and occurrences in the Karkonosze-Izera Massif, namely, polymetallic mineralization sites at Budniki, Ciechanowice, Izerskie Garby and Sowia Dolina, and the pyrite deposit at Wieściszowice. The data reveal two populations of δ34S values: from 2.74 to 3.95‰ (pyrrhotites and pyrites in Sowia Dolina, and some pyrites in Wieściszowice) and from 0.79 to 1.8‰ (pyrites in Budniki, Ciechanowice and Izerskie Garby, and some pyrites from Wieściszowice). All of the data are indicative of endogenic sulphur typical of hydrothermal mineralization despite the genetic differences between the sites.
The Miedzianka mining district has been known for ages as a site of polymetallic ore deposits with copper and, later, uranium as the main commodities. Although recently uneconomic and hardly accessible, the Miedzianka ores attract Earth scientists due to the interesting and still controversial details of their ore structure, mineralogy and origin. Our examination of the ore mineralization from the Miedzianka district was based exclusively on samples collected from old mining dumps located in the vicinity of Miedzianka and Ciechanowice, and on samples from the only available outcrop in Przybkowice. In samples from the Miedzianka field, chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena, bornite, chalcocite, digenite, arsenopyrite, magnetite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, bornite, hematite, martite, pyrrhotite, ilmenite, cassiterite and covellite are hosted in quartz-mica schists and in coarse-grained quartz with chlorite. In the Ciechanowice field, the ore mineralization occurs mainly in strongly chloritized amphibolites occasionally intergrown with quartz and, rarely, with carbonates. Other host-rocks are quartz-chlorite schist and quartzites. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite-tennantite, bismuthinite, native Bi, arsenopyrite, löllingite, cassiterite, cobaltite, gersdorffite, chalcocite, cassiterite, bornite, covellite, marcasite and pyrrhotite. Moreover, mawsonite and wittichenite were identified for the first time in the district. In barite veins cross-cutting the greenstones and greenschists in Przybkowice, we found previously-known chalcopyrite, chalcocite and galena. The composition of the hydrothermal fluids is suggested to evolved through a series of consecutive systems characterized, in turn, by Ti-Fe-Sn, Fe- As-S, Fe-Co-As-S, Cu-Zn-S and, finally, Cu-Pb-Sb-As-Bi compositions.