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Open access

Lidia Gawlik, Maciej Kaliski, Jacek Kamiński, Andrzej P. Sikora and Adam Szurlej

Abstract

This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

Open access

Marta Bukowska, Anna Bogacz, Marlena Wolek, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Piotr Olbromski, Adam Kamiński and Bogusław Czerny

Summary

Introduction: Blood brain barrier and multidrug resistance phenomenon are subjects of many investigations. Mainly, because of their functions in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking the delivery of toxic substances to the brain. This special function has some disadvantages, like drug delivery to the brain in neurodegenerative diseases

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how natural and synthetic substances affect the expression levels of genes (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Mrp2, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1) that encode transporters in the blood-brain barrier.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat hippocampus. The expression level of genes was determined using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method.

Results: Our findings showed that verapamil, as a synthetic substance, caused the greatest reduction of mRNA level of genes studied. The standardized extract of Curcuma longa reduced the expression level for Mrp1 and Mrp2, whereas the increase of mRNA level was observed for Mdr1b, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1.

Conclusions: These results suggests that herbal extracts may play an important role in overcoming the blood brain barrier during pharmacotherapy.

Open access

Anna Bogacz, Marlena Wolek, Bogna Juskowiak, Monika Karasiewicz, Adam Kamiński, Izabela Uzar, Anna Polaszewska, Zofia Kostrzewa and Bogusław Czerny

Summary

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. Both drug resistance and metastasis are major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, adjuvant therapy may improve patients’ survival and affect their quality of life. It is suggested that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which is well known for its chemopreventive activity and acts on numerous molecular targets may inhibit the growth and metastasis of some cancers. Hence, discovering the metastatic molecular mechanisms for breast cancer may be useful for therapy.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of EGGC on the mRNA expression level of genes such as ZEB1, ABCB1, MDM2, TWIST1 and PTEN in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Methods: MCF7/DOX were cultured in the presence of 0.2 μM DOX and EGCG (20-50 μM). The mRNA expression level was determined by real-time quantitative PCR using RealTime ready Custom Panel 96 kit.

Results: Our results showed an important increase (about 2-fold for 20 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX and 2.5-fold for 50 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX, p<0.05) in ZEB1 expression levels. In case of ABCB1 gene lack of influence on the mRNA level was observed (p>0.05). We also observed significant decrease of ZEB1 expression in MCF7 cells with 20 μM and 50 μM EGCG (p<0.05). In addition, EGCG (20 μM) caused an increase of MDM2 and PTEN mRNA levels in almost 100% (p<0.05) and 40% (p>0.05), respectively. Lack of the influence of EGCG was noted for the TWIST1 gene expression. In case of MCF7/DOX we showed an increase of mRNA level of PTEN gene about 50% (p<0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that EGCG may be potentially used in adjuvant therapy in the breast cancer treatment.