Instrumenty zapewnienia właściwej podaży dóbr publicznych - przegląd wybranych zagadnień na przykładzie ochrony przyrody w lasach
Finansowanie ochrony przyrody z budżetu państwa w lasach państwowych w Polsce i w wybranych krajach europejskich - analiza porównawcza
The aim of the paper is to present the results of a cost analysis for artificial and natural oak regeneration in selected forest districts in Poland. This research was conducted in six forest districts with a high share of natural oak regeneration, located in south-western and central Poland. Altogether 65 plots with artificial and 35 plots with natural regeneration were analysed based on the extent of silvicultural (weeding, blank-filling and pre-commercial thinning) and protective measures (chemical and mechanical wildlife damage control, fencing) performed on the regenerated areas for the six years following forest regeneration. An intensity ratio (i.e., a proportion of the area of measures to the area of forest regeneration) as well as the mean unit costs of the measures and mean costs of the measures per hectare of forest regeneration were calculated.
The results show that the total costs of silvicultural and protective measures in natural oak regeneration were considerably lower as compared to artificial regeneration. The cumulative average costs during 6 years (without costs of fencing) amounted to 1216 PLN/ ha and 6543 PLN/ha for natural and artificial regeneration respectively. Lower costs of natural oak regeneration resulted from the complete lack of expenditures on seedlings and planting, a considerably lower weeding intensity, scarce blank-filling, and the absence of mechanical wildlife damage control measures. Nonetheless, natural regeneration generated higher costs for pre-commercial thinning due to its higher intensity, earlier initiation, and higher unit costs compared to artificial regeneration, as well as chemical wildlife damage control measures, for which the unit costs were higher by over 50%. However, the higher costs of pre-commercial thinning and chemical control measures did not significantly affect the measurable financial benefits of natural regeneration.
In conclusion, the matter of financial viability of natural oak regeneration should be explored in more detail over longer time spans.
Adam Kaliszewski and Piotr Gołos
The paper presents the results of studies concerning the availability and possibilities of the use of wood for energy purposes in Europe and in Poland. It describes in detail the current use of wood for energy production purposes, as well as predictions on volume, composition, and sources of energy wood. It also presents the results concerning potential impact of energy wood harvesting on wood industries. The paper concludes that the question of utilization of forest biomass for large-scale energy generation is very complex and has far-reaching consequences for environment, society and economy. So as to be effective, wood resources management should give a priority to wood-based production of the greatest added value, and energy generation should be a closing-down stage in the wood value chain
Adam Kaliszewski and Wojciech Młynarski
The article presents the results of research on the opportunity costs related to establishing nature reserves in four randomly-selected forest districts located in the Mazowieckie Province: Celestynów, Grójec, Płońsk and Zwoleń. Our analysis included calculation of profits forgone by forest districts due to the cessation of timber harvesting in nature reserves and an estimation of work places lost as a result of introduction of new limitations, as well as the expenses incurred by municipalities related to their establishment of forest tax concessions in nature reserves. The establishment of nature reserves incurred losses related to timber harvest of about 246 thousand m3 during the period of 10 years, which is equivalent to between 4.1% and 19.8% of the planned timber harvest stated in the forest management plans of the studied forest districts. Total opportunity costs were equal to 25.5-27.2 million PLN during these 10 years or 1502-1605 PLN/ha of nature reserve annually. Annual opportunity costs calculated per unit of forest area were equal to 56-60 PLN/ha. The estimated loss in work places was 98.8 working days annually per 1000 ha of forest area in forest districts. Total expenses incurred by municipalities related to establishment of forest tax concessions in nature reserves reached about 18.1 thousand PLN in 2011. The research results show that the economic and social costs of nature protection activities are concentrated in their places of their origin. Those costs are felt the most by the owners of the affected forests and local communities. We recommend that possibilities are explored for the introduction of instruments to allow the mitigation of negative effects resulting from restrictions in forest use. Restructuring of forest and nature protection policy, to take into account the interests of all stakeholders would provide an improved model for the use of these forests
Adam Kaliszewski, Wojciech Młynarski and Piotr Gołos
The aim of the paper is to present the potential for afforestation of agricultural lands under the ‘National Programme for Expanding of Forest Cover’ (KPZL) in Poland until 2020. The analysis is based on the ongoing social and economic changes in rural areas in the past decade as well as factors limiting implementation of the Programme. The data used have been derived from annual reports of the Agricultural Property Agency (ANR), the Central Statistical Office and also other official documents and legal acts related to the issue.
Assuming that the area of agricultural lands transferred by the ANR to the State Forests Holding – an institution responsible for implementing the KPZL on state-owned lands – remains approximately 350 ha per year, the overall extent of afforestation on state-owned lands will not exceed 4,500–4,600 ha until 2020. In case of private lands, a further decline in annual afforestation area will be observed. The lack of a stable financing system is a major reason for the decrease in the area of agricultural lands transferred for afforestation. The projections show that the average annual afforestation area on private lands will not exceed 2,500 ha until 2020. Altogether, it can be expected that during the period 2015–2020, approximately 20,000 ha of agricultural lands will be afforested.
The study shows that the current rate of afforestation is insufficient for reaching the target defined in the KPZL (afforestation of 680,000 ha of lands during the period 2001–2020). Low supply of private lands for afforestation and insufficient financial support for farmers are the most important factors limiting the implementation of the KPZL. The situation could be improved by free transfer of public lands for afforestation from the ANR to the State Forests Holding and by implementing financial instruments for afforestation of private lands from the Forest Fund resources.
Piotr Gołos and Adam Kaliszewski
This article presents the most important aspects relevant to forest-derived biomass utilization for the purposes of energy production by professional energy providers. The issues discussed here are divided into four groups: environmental, social, economic and technological aspects of biomass utilization in energy production. The environmental part focuses on the effects of intensive use of leftovers from timber harvest on forest ecosystems as well as the problem of ash utilization. Economic and social problems include the costs of energy production from timber, consequences of intensified fuel wood demand for the state of the timber and paper industry as well as the impact on the labor market. The technology section of the article covers questions related to the harvest and transport of forest-derived biomass.
We conclude that, before regarding it as an energy source, wood should be mainly used for the production of timber due to the necessity and difficulty of considering all of the above-mentioned diverse aspects of energy production. Wood should be used for the production of energy only after its usage as timber products and their recycling.
Wojciech Młynarski and Adam Kaliszewski
The article presents research on the management and supervision of forests located within cities in the Mazowieckie Province. The information was obtained: from questionnaires sent to all 85 city authorities in the province. The questions were related to organization and supervision of forests, forest management and protection, recreational management and financing of forests, as well as main problems associated with the management of urban forests.
The research indicated that forests, which altogether cover more than 10% of city area, have a very important function, despite the forest area per resident being very small. The difficulties in forest management may arise due to their highly fragmented distribution as well as the mixture of many different types of forest owners. Moreover, communal forests in the province’s smaller towns lack proper management and protection structures and lack recreational facilities as local infrastructure is poorly developed. These sort of activities are conducted only in larger municipalities. Most of the non-state owned forests within cities have simplified forest management plans, which counts as a big plus for the Mazowieckie Province when considered in the context of the whole country. Certain measures should be taken to improve the condition of urban forests in the Mazowieckie Province, and serve to preserve and protection these forests. It is fundamental that city governments should cooperate with as wide as possible a circle of interested parties, to undertake common activities in forests of various ownership types located within each given urban area. Additionally, all feasible sources of financing should be considered.
Stanisław Zając, Adam Kaliszewski and Wojciech Młynarski
The paper provides general information about forests and forestry in Poland against a background of other EU Member States. Based on the data published in various international sources of statistical data it presents the information of forest resources, forest health condition, protection of forests, occurrence of forest fires, employment in forestry and related sectors, as well as selected aspects of production and trade of wood and wood products and also generation and use of renewable energy. The paper concludes that Poland is characterized by vast forest and timber resources, however in view of a large area of the country and large population share of forest lands in the total area of the country and the average forest area per inhabitant are low. The high share of protected areas makes Poland one of the leaders in forest protection, however Polish forests are very vulnerable to fires. Poland is a significant producer of wood-based panels, sawnwood and pulpwood, as well as paper and cardboard.