Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM) [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v)] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM), an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD) consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.
The research in textiles is being driven by ecology, economy, and functionality. Therefore, the present research is focused on the development of multifunctional textiles that consume minimum energy during their processing, eco-friendly chemicals for functionalization, and use short processing steps. Eco-friendly cross-linkers such as butanetetracarboxylic acid and zinc oxide nanoparticles are used to impart wrinkle recovery, antibacterial activity, ultraviolet (UV) protection, bending rigidity, and antistatic properties to cotton fabric just in one step. The treated fabric has been characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer. Wrinkle recovery, tear strength, antibacterial activity, UV protection, and antistatic properties were tested with AATCC 66-1990, ASTM D 1224, AATCC 147, AATCC 183, and UNI EN 1149, respectively. The treated fabric shows excellent functional properties up to 20 washing cycles.
Functionalization of textile fabrics with metal oxide nanoparticles can be used to add antibacterial and moisture management properties to them. Current work focuses on the development of these properties on polyester/cotton woven fabrics by treating them with zinc oxide nanoparticles for workwear and sportswear applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, prepared by sol-gel method, were applied on fabric samples, which were then tested for antibacterial and moisture management properties using standard test methods AATCC 147 with Staphylococcus aureus and AATCC 195, respectively. It was found that application of ZnO nanoparticles improved both these properties with smaller particle imparting larger effects on both of them.
The demand of cotton is increasing but its low production rate cannot fulfill the world requirements. The increase in cotton demand has augmented the production of regenerated cellulosic fibers. Furthermore, cotton has proved to be unsustainable because of the use of huge amount of fresh water, pesticides and insecticides. The purpose of this work is to find out the suitable blend/blends of regenerated fibers so as to replace 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, mechanical and comfort properties of Tencel fabrics blended with other regenerated cellulose fibers have been compared with 100% cotton to achieve the equivalent or even better end properties. Hence, cotton, viscose, Tencel, modal, and bamboo fibers were taken. Plain woven blended fabrics of 100% cotton and 50:50 blends of Tencel with other regenerated fibers were prepared from normal yarn count of 20 tex. The mechanical properties (warp-wise and weft-wise tensile and tear strengths, pilling, and abrasion resistance) and the comfort properties including air permeability, moisture management properties, and thermal resistance were evaluated. It is found that Tencel blended fabrics show better results than 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, it is concluded that Tencel blended with these regenerated fabrics can be used to replace 100% cotton fabrics.