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Abu Shahid Abdullah

Abstract

Márquez was greatly influenced by his grandmother’s story-telling ability, and was highly indebted to the socio-political history of Latin America, particularly Colombia. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, he wants to reconstruct the lost world of childhood by using magical realism which gives expression to the world-view of a rural people who live in isolation from modern world. By retelling the official history from the perspective of the oppressed, he reveals the fact that history is never factual and impartial but serves the interest of those who write it. Through the banana company massacre and the subsequent hide and seek over the number of dead workers, Márquez exposes the way official history becomes fabricated and distorted by authorities, and fails to provide the original occurrences. He was disgusted with the political violence and civil wars which had distraught people; he was also against capitalism, scientific and technological inventions, and so-called modernization, which are the means through which foreign culture brings corruption and brutality, dominates, exploits and oppresses the natives, and threatens the native culture and identity. By employing magical realism, he was able to recreate Colombian history to protest against the way capitalism dominated the socio-political and economic structure of the region.

Open access

Idrus Abdullah and Djumardin

Abstract

Siri marriage, known in various terms such as under hand marriage and undocumented marriage, is a marriage based on religious rules or customs and is not recorded in the Office of Religious Affairs for Muslims or the Office of Civil Registry for non-Muslims. Factors influencing the occurrence of siri marriage are; economy, social, culture, education, and religious beliefs in the legality of siri marriage. The legal consequences of not doing registration of marriages would harm spouses or those who are married even though the marriage is performed in accordance with religion and beliefs because it is considered invalid if it has not been recorded by the Office of Religious Affairs or the Office of Civil Registry. Furthermore, children who are born in an undocumented marriage are considered illegitimate and also only have a civil relationship with mother or mother’s family (Article 42 and 43 of the Act on Marriage).

Open access

Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

Abstract

The article will show that in Nights at the Circus, Carter’s use of the themes of food consumption and excrement operate as both a grotesque means of emancipation from a feminine point-of-view, and a carnivalesque challenge to subversive patriarchal norms and deconstruction of arbitrary patriarchal hierarchies. By turning the simple act of eating into boisterous spectacle, and by handling a bottle of champagne and water hose in a disturbingly masculine manner, Fevvers transgresses the boundary between masculinity and femininity, sheds the patriarchal constraints imposed upon femininity, and thus achieves agency and emancipation. Since she is not able to acquire biological signifier of masculinity, she achieves the transgression of the binary entirely through the performative carnivalesque. The article will also discuss that the overflowing nature of grotesque femininity (both physical and behavioral) enables the female characters to speak and act at their own will, and thus performs as a means of critiquing Victorian patriarchal cultural norms.

Open access

Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyse the role of memory in generating, transmitting and coming to terms with trauma, and the importance of exploring history, and talking about and sharing traumatic events in the process of healing in Joan Fedler’s The Dreamcloth (2005). In the novel, Maya’s memories of her unrequited lesbian relationship with her beloved Rochel, oppression by the traditional structures of her family and Jewish community, her forced marriage with Yankel, and her being raped by him are responsible for her trauma on a personal level, whereas her forced relocation to South Africa in order to flee from the Holocaust is responsible for her trauma on a communal level. Mia, the protagonist and the grand-daughter of Maya, suffers from the transgenerational trauma of her grandmother, is haunted by her ghost, and also symbolically represents the traumatized Jewish community. She cannot relate to her own Jewish South African identity and thus tries to avoid being reminded of her historical background. Mia recovers from her trauma by exploring her history, solving the riddles of the past and sharing the traumatic memories of the past.

Open access

Abdullah Bora Özkara

Abstract

Different countries differently address the physical education needs of disabled children. Some focus only on the classroom learning hence equipping the children with little knowledge on physical education. Others lack the facilities to facilitate the physical education of the disabled. This has led to an increased number of the disabled with little or no knowledge about their talent in the field of sports. This paper compares access to the physical education by the disabled in England, Germany, France and Turkey. The countries were determined by taking into consideration the population and geographical conditions. Data is collected from secondary resources and compared for the countries. The paper also sheds light on the factors that hamper the provision of physical education to the disabled in the three countries. It is concluded that the education systems in Germany and England do not favor the provision of physical education to the disabled. Special educational needs are recognized in the French education system and hence the reason behind the increased number of disabled children majoring in sports. The second barrier to the provision of physical education to the disabled is the lack of facilities. In Germany, for example, there are inadequate facilities for use by disabled students while doing physical exercises. In England, the focus is on classroom learning. It is only in France where the government has provided adequate equipment for use by the disabled during physical education classes (Ardoy, et al., 2014). In Turkey there is a need to further encouragement of participation in physical activity of people with disabilities Finally, there has been a belief that the disabled have no place in the field of sports hence leading to poor financing of the special needs education by the government.

Open access

Abdullah Bora Özkara

Abstract

The foundations of modern physical education in Turkey have been defined using arrangements of European countries. In general, it has been determined that European standards are taken into account as criteria when physical education is generally assessed. The evaluation of this development should also be made with scientific studies. It cannot be said that the researches carried out by the comparative research method are not sufficient; besides, many studies are carried out in different fields of physical education in Turkey. In this research the current status of physical education has been analyzed through comparative research methodology. Core aims of the study include assessing the value of PE to learners and the community; finding out and comparing teaching modules and approaches; comparing material environment around teaching PE; defining the modern trends in physical education development. Data have been collected by means of document analysis. Curriculum reform carried out in 2013 in Turkey was accepted as the start for the conducting of the document analysis. As a result, it must be accepted that Europe is an established physical education course culture. Turkey has been carrying out the reforms in recent years to create this culture. Europe has a strong heritage in terms of physical education while Turkey has increased its efforts in recent years to build this heritage. It has been revealed that the new physical education course content has been used in Turkey since 2004. Physical education and sports programs are designed on two basic areas of learning and development: mobility competence and active and healthy living. The basic structure of the physical education lesson teaching plan is based on the principles of physical, mental, individual, emotional and social skills, taking into account the environmental conditions and prevalence of providing physical activity and participation of students in sports.

Open access

Irem Hicran Özbudak, Ömer Özbudak, Gökhan Arslan, Abdullah Erdoğan, Abdullah Erdoğan and Gülay Özbilim

Abstract

Th e prevalence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient is reported in a wide variation. Th e co-existence of malignant mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma is a rare entity. Herein, we reported a 60-year-old man who was a retired employee and heavy smoker. He had a suspicious history of asbestos exposure. He complained of chest pain and computerized tomography revealed a mass in the lower lobe of left lung. Th e patient underwent a left lower lobectomy and was diagnosed as pulmonary adenocarcinoma. During follow-up two years aft er surgery, the patient complained of dyspnea and chest computerized tomography scan revealed right pleural effusion and diff use pleural thickening. For the differential diagnosis, the patient underwent wedge biopsy from the right lower lobe and was diagnosed as epithelial diff use malignant mesothelioma. Th e development of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung carcinoma could be associated with asbestos exposure. However, a history of asbestos exposure is not required for the diagnosis. The influence of effective anticancer therapies that improve the survival rates and increase the population ages could be related to the occurrence of a second malignancy.

Open access

Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem, Vartika Gulati, Pranay Goswami and Abdullah Aljoujiee

Open access

Siyamak Pourabedian, Abdullah Barkhordari, Ehsanallah Habibi, Masoud Rismanchiyan and Mohsen Zare

Effect of 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate Exposure on Peak Flowmetry in Automobile Paint Shop Workers in Iran

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) on peak flowmetry in automobile body paint shop workers in Iran. We studied a population of 43 car painters exposed to HDI at their workplaces. Peak expiratory flow was tested for one working week, from the start to the end of each shift. Air was sampled and HDI analysed in parallel, according to the OSHA 42 method.

Daily and weekly HDI exposure averages were (0.42±0.1) mg m-3 and (0.13±0.05) mg m-3, respectively.

On painting days, 72 % of workers showed more than a 10 % variation in peak expiratory flow. Inhalation exposure exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) ten times over. This strongly suggests that HDI affected the peak flowmetry in the studied workers.

Open access

Abdullah A. Ansari

Abstract

The present paper investigates the motion of the variable infinitesimal body in circular restricted four variable bodies problem. We have constructed the equations of motion of the infinitesimal variable mass under the effect of source of radiation pressure due to which albedo effects are produced by another two primaries and one primary is considered as an oblate body which is placed at the triangular equilibrium point of the classical restricted three-body problem and also the variation of Jacobi Integral constant has been determined. We have studied numerically the equilibrium points, Poincaré surface of sections and basins of attraction in five cases (i. Third primary is placed at one of the triangular equilibrium points of the classical restricted three-body problem, ii. Variation of masses, iii. Solar radiation pressure, iv. Albedo effect, v. Oblateness effect.) by using Mathematica software. Finally, we have examined the stability of the equilibrium points and found that all the equilibrium points are unstable.