Zahir Muhammad, Naila Inayat, Abdul Majeed, Rehmanullah, Hazrat Ali and Kaleem Ullah
Crop plants have defined roles in agricultural production and feeding the world. They are affected by several environmental and biological stresses, which range from soil salinity, drought, and climate change to exposure to diverse plant pathogens. These stresses pose risk to agricultural sustainability. To avoid the increasing biotic and abiotic pressure on crop plants, agrochemicals are extensively used in agriculture for attaining desirable yield and production of crops. However, the use of agrochemicals is also challenging the integrity of ecosystems. Thus, to maintain the integrity of ecosystem, sustainable measures for elevated crop production are required. Allelopathy, a process of chemical interactions between plants and other organisms, could be used in the management of several biotic and abiotic stresses if the basic mechanisms of the phenomena and plants with allelopathic potentials are known. Allelopathy has a promising future for its application in agriculture for natural weed management, improving soil health and suppressing plant diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of allelopathy in agriculture and its role in sustainability with a specific focus on weed management and crop protection.
Krzysztof Dziekoński, Omar Hesham Mohamed Fawzy Ibrahim, Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu and Patrick Manu
Construction industry is considered as one of the most important sectors in Egypt. One of the major challenges faced by the industry, however, is the unavailability of suitable performance measurement systems for assessing companies’ performance. Modern performance assessment systems adopt a more universal approach to the measurement of construction company performance as opposed to the traditional project triangle. This paper aims to examine the practice of performance measurement in the Egyptian construction industry. Results show dominant role of in-house developed performance management systems as well as the use of KPIs as a method of performance assessment. The study further reveals that the highest importance is given to measures related to the time of project delivery, quality of works, clients’ satisfaction and profitability. Hence, the traditional project triangle of project’s success is the most prevalent approach to performance evaluation in the construction industry in Egypt. However, a shift towards a more holistic approach to performance assessment in larger companies was observed.