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Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood, Yasir Nawab, Sheraz Ahmad, Abher Rasheed, Munir Ashraf and Abdul Basit

Abstract

A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

Open access

Abdul Basit, Wasif Latif, Munir Ashraf, Abdur Rehman, Kashif Iqbal, Hafiz Shahzad Maqsood, Abdul Jabbar and Sajjad Ahmad Baig

Abstract

The demand of cotton is increasing but its low production rate cannot fulfill the world requirements. The increase in cotton demand has augmented the production of regenerated cellulosic fibers. Furthermore, cotton has proved to be unsustainable because of the use of huge amount of fresh water, pesticides and insecticides. The purpose of this work is to find out the suitable blend/blends of regenerated fibers so as to replace 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, mechanical and comfort properties of Tencel fabrics blended with other regenerated cellulose fibers have been compared with 100% cotton to achieve the equivalent or even better end properties. Hence, cotton, viscose, Tencel, modal, and bamboo fibers were taken. Plain woven blended fabrics of 100% cotton and 50:50 blends of Tencel with other regenerated fibers were prepared from normal yarn count of 20 tex. The mechanical properties (warp-wise and weft-wise tensile and tear strengths, pilling, and abrasion resistance) and the comfort properties including air permeability, moisture management properties, and thermal resistance were evaluated. It is found that Tencel blended fabrics show better results than 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, it is concluded that Tencel blended with these regenerated fabrics can be used to replace 100% cotton fabrics.

Open access

Shoaib Abdul Basit, Thomas Kuhn and Mumtaz Ahmed

Abstract

Background: To enhance the innovation activities at the firm level, government subsidies plays an important role.

Objectives: The objective of the study is to explore whether firms in service sector that receive government subsidies engage more in marketing and organizational innovation activities than their counterparts. Second, focusing on the subsidized firms in the service sector, the impact of innovations (marketing as well as organizational) on firm performance—measured as the probability of submitted copyright applications by firms, has been analyzed.

Methods/Approach: The propensity score matching approach and probit model have been used to analyze the innovation activities of subsidized and non-subsidized firms. The empirical analysis is based on the micro level data from Mannheim Innovation Panel, covering the Community Innovation Survey of 2011.

Results: Empirical results show that public subsidy has a significant positive effect on marketing and organizational innovation. In addition, within the firms that have received government subsidy, the impact of only marketing innovation is found to be significant on firm performance.

Conclusions: These findings employ that subsidized firms are more likely to perform better than their counterparts. Furthermore, public subsidy programs increase the probability of applying for a copyright in small and medium firms.