A.Z. Khan, T. Shah, S. Khan, A. Rehman, H. Akbar, A. Muhammad and S.K. Khalil
The objective of this study was to assess the comparative efficiency of different priming techniques on germination and early seedling growth of maize cultivars. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of different seed invigoration treatments on seed germination and vigor traits of three maize hybrids, Pioneer 3025, Pioneer 70 and Baber at Agronomy research laboratory, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was laid in completely randomized design (CRD) and was replicated thrice. The treatments included control treatment (T1) unsoaked/dry seed, (T2) hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs, (T3) halo priming treatments with NaCl (3% solution) for 24 hrs, (T4) osmopriming with PEG-6000 for 24 hrs and (T5), hormonal priming with GA3 for 24 hrs. The results showed that seed invigoration treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) PEG-6000 and hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs gave higher germination, decreased days to 50% germination, increased shoot length, root length, seedling fresh and dry weight, as compared to halo priming with NaCl and control treatment. It is concluded that seed invigoration with GA3, osmopriming with PEG-6000 and hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs serve as an appropriate treatment for accelerating the emergence and growth parameters of maize hybrid. Pioneer 3025 showed its superiority over other cultivars in all the studied parameters.
The performance of assessment in medical image segmentation is highly correlated with the extraction of anatomic structures from them, and the major task is how to separate the regions of interests from the background and soft tissues successfully. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based bitplane method to automatically segment the background of images and to locate the region of interest of medical images. This segmentation algorithm consists of three steps, namely identification, rule firing, and inference. In the first step, we begin by identifying the bitplanes that represent the lungs clearly. For this purpose, the intensity value of a pixel is separated into bitplanes. In the second step, the triple signum function assigns an optimum threshold based on the grayscale values for the anatomical structure present in the medical images. Fuzzy rules are formed based on the available bitplanes to form the membership table and are stored in a knowledge base. Finally, rules are fired to assign final segmentation values through the inference process. The proposed new metrics are used to measure the accuracy of the segmentation method. From the analysis, it is observed that the proposed metrics are more suitable for the estimation of segmentation accuracy. The results obtained from this work show that the proposed method performs segmentation effectively for the different classes of medical images.
Nasar Ahmed, Abdul Majid, M.A. Khan, M. Rashid, Z.A. Umar and M.A. Baig
Self-assembled Zn/ZnO microspheres have been accomplished on selected sites of boron doped P-type silicon substrates using hydrothermal approach. The high density Zn/ZnO microspheres were grown on the Si substrates by chemical treatment in mixed solution of zinc sulfate ZnSO4·7H2O and ammonium hydroxide NH4(OH) after uniform heating at 95 °C for 15 min. The Zn/ZnO microspheres had dimensions in the range of 1 μm to 20 μm and were created only on selected sites of silicon substrate. The crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of as-prepared samples were studied by using scanning electron microscope SEM, X-ray diffraction XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra DRS. The energy band gap Eg of about 3.28 eV was obtained using Tauc plot. In summary, this study suggests that interfacial chemistry is responsible for the crystal growth on indented sites of silicon substrate and the hydrothermal based growth mechanism is proposed as a useful methodology for the formation of highly crystalline three dimensional (3-D) Zn/ZnO microspheres.
T. Shah, A.Z. Khan, M. Numan, W. Ahmad, M. Zahoor, M. Ullah and A. Jalal
Water stress experienced by a wheat crop during growth is recognized to have accumulative effect stated as a decline in total biomass over well water potential. The yield and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Pirsabak-2013 and Atta Habib) to foliar feeding of 2% potassium (K) at three various growth phases (Zadoks GS-22, Zadoks GS-60 and Zadoks GS-73) was explored under water restricted environment in a wire house trial at the Agriculture Research Station, Harichand, Charsadda. The target was to find out the preeminent K application stage for enhancement in the drought tolerance potential. Drought stress was generated by suppression of irrigation at the three growth phases and then K was sprayed with the carboxymethyl cellulose as a sticking agent, however Tween-20 was used as a surfactant for foliar spray. Data about several agronomic characters (plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant) of crop were documented via standard techniques. Moreover, at maturity, aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus, K, sodium and calcium uptakes by the crop were determined. The results point out that drought stress at all three acute growth phases unfavorably affected plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and nutrient uptake of the wheat plant. The exogenous K application under drought stress at all three acute growth phases boosted tolerance of wheat by decreasing noxious nutrient’s uptake and augmenting the yield and yield characters. In this concerns, both varieties exposed undeviating behavior. Extreme enhancement in all the documented yield parameters and nutrients uptake was attained when K was practiced at grain filling stage of both varieties.
H.Z. Khan, Abdullah, M. Amin, N. Akbar, M.F. Saleem and A. Iqbal
Micronutrients play a significant role in various plant metabolic processes and are required in much smaller amount by the plants as compared to the macronutrients. An experiment was conducted during 2011, at the Agronomic research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to investigate the response of autumn planted maize to ZnSO4 and MnSO4 levels (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1) and in combinations (5 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 5 kg ha-1 MnSO4, 10 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 10 kg ha-1 MnSO4 and 15 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 15 kg ha-1 MnSO4). The randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replicates was used with plot size of 3 m x 6 m. The crop was planted on ridges 75 cm apart with recommended plant to plant distance of 25 cm. Maximum values for plant height at maturity (225 cm), cob diameter (4.29 cm), number of grains per cob (415), biological yield (20.15 tons ha-1), grain yield (7.42 tons ha-1) and seed protein content (8.96%) were recorded where 15 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 15 kg ha-1 MnSO4 was applied.
A. Ahmad, Z.I. Ahmed, M. Shehzad, I. Aziz, K.S. Khan, M. Shoaib, T. Mehmood and K. Mubeen
Water scarcity and land degradation are emerging threats to global food production. The dry land regions of world are affected by climate change to a greater extent and facing food insecurity. The current pattern of food production has been estimated to be inadequate to meet demands of growing population and required around 38% increase to meet world`s food demands by 2025. Food insecurity in erosion hit dry land regions of Pakistan also demands development of resource-efficient cropping systems to meet the food needs of population growing. The research studies involved different cropping patterns such as fallow-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat, fallow-lentil, mungbean-lentil, sorghum-lentil, fallow-barley, mungbean-barley and sorghum-barley. The organic amendments involved farmyard manure, NPK, poultry manure, compost and inoculation by phosphorus solubilizing microbes. The effect of cropping systems and soil amendments were evaluated at field scale in terms of water use efficiency measured in terms of economic terms. The results of the studies revealed that double cropping (mungbean-lentil and mungbean-barley) was feasible option in the dryland regions of Pakistan if integrated with the use of poultry manure as alternate environmental-friendly strategy to cut down the use of mineral fertilizers and eliminate summer fallowing.
The interplay between groups and graphs have been the most famous and productive area of algebraic graph theory. In this paper, we introduce and study the graphs whose vertex set is group G such that two distinct vertices a and b having di erent orders are adjacent provided that o(a) divides o(b) or o(b) divides o(a).