I.V. Furtini, M. A. P. Ramalho, J. I. M. Abad and A. M. Aguiar
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the performance of an individual in clonal testing was affected by the location of the initial selection. The study also evaluated the effect of mass selection and BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) on the performance of individuals in the progeny test and the clonal test. In the progeny test, 62 half-sib E. grandis families, 68 half-sib E. urophylla families and 62 full-sib families between E. grandis and E. urophylla, plus four checks were evaluated totaling 196 treatments. The experiments were carried out at three sites: Aracruz and São Mateus, in Espírito Santo State and Caravelas, Bahia State, Brazil. The 1000 best individuals were classified by mass selection and BLUP. In the clonal tests 257 clones were evaluated in two locations: Aracruz and Caravelas. In both the progeny test and the clonal test, two years after planting, the circumference at breast height and basic wood density were measured and the sum of standardized variables (Z) was estimated for simultaneous selection of both characteristics. The results indicated that the origin of the individual in a progeny test had a small effect on the performance of the clone when evaluated in other environments; the estimates of realized heritability and the linear regression coefficient were small in all the selection strategies. Thus, the correlation between the performance of trees selected in progeny tests and their respective clones in the clonal test was small.
M.K. Pagliarini, W.S. Kieras, J.P. Moreira, V.A. Sousa, J.Y. Shimizu, M.L.T. Moraes, E. Furlani and A.V. Aguiar
The study was conducted to estimate the stability, adaptability, productivity and genetic parameters in Slash pine second-generation half-sib families, considering phenotypic traits in early age. Forty-four families from a first generation seed orchard in Colombo-PR, Brazil, were used in this study. Two progenies tests were established in a randomized complete block design. The first test was implemented in March 2009 in Ribeirão Branco, São Paulo state, containing 40 blocks, one tree per plot, 44 treatments (progenies) and 6 controls. Another test was implemented in Ponta Grossa, Paraná state, using the same experimental design and number of plants per plot, and with 24 treatments, 32 blocks. The growth traits evaluated were total height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and wood volume, within five years. The form traits evaluated were stem form, branch thickness, branch angle, number of branches, fork and fox tail five years after planting. Deviance analysis and estimates of stability, adaptability, productivity and genetic parameters were performed using the methods of best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) and residual maximum likelihood (REML). There was significant variation among progenies for growth and form traits. Considerable genetic variation was detected mainly for wood volume. High coefficients of genetic variation and heritability showed low environmental influence on phenotypic variation, which is important for the prediction of genetic gain by selection. Crosses between different progenies individuals groups will be prioritized for obtaining heterotics genotypes and increase the probability of obtaining high specific combining ability.
O. Bison, M. A. P. Ramalho, G. D. S. P. Rezende, A. M. Aguiar and M. D. V. De Resende
The cellulose industry in Brazil uses, mainly, hybrids between Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. Not only the volume but also the wood density has great influence in the cellulose productivity, therefore a selection for both characteristics should be done as an alternative to increase the improvement program efficiency. The present work has been carried out with the objective of comparison between Open Pollinated progenies (OP) and hybrids performance in E. grandis and E. urophylla. To do so, 15 OP progenies of E. grandis, 15 OP progenies of E. urophylla, and 15 hybrids between E. grandis × E. urophylla, plus four controls were evaluated. The experiment was carried out from October to November 2001, in three sites, Aracruz and São Mateus, in the Espírito Santo State, and Caravelas, Bahia State, Brazil, in a 14 × 14 lattice design, involving the 49 treatments mentioned plus other progenies not considered in this article, with single tree plots and 40 replicates. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the basic wood density (BWD) were evaluated. The hybrids performance for CBH was higher, an average, 38,7% than the OP progenies for both species. Part of the heterosis in relation to parental means could be attributed to the inbreeding depression due to selfing that occurred in the OP progenies and the dominance controlling this character. For the BWD the hybrids performance was the same of the OP progenies. Since there was divergence between the parents, it can be inferred that dominance has no importance for this trait. The negative correlation between the CBH and the BWD could impair the simultaneous selection for both traits, depending on the wood basic density range used by the industry.
D. Torres-Dini, A. C. P. Nunes, A. Aguiar, N. Nikichuk, C. Centurión, M. Cabrera, M. L. T. Moraes, M. D. V. Resende and A. M. Sebbenn
In Uruguay, reforestations with Eucalyptus sp. is of fundamental importance to supply paper, pulp, and wood production. This study investigates genetic, productivity, stability, and adaptability parameters in the selection of Eucalypts grandis x Eucalyptus globulus full-sib hybrid clones. The study was conducted in a clonal test, repeated in two different soils types, in Rio Negro State, Uruguay. The population was characterized phenotypically for diameter at breast height (dbh) and genotyped for SNP markers (EuCHIP60K chip). Mean dbh was similar between sites and the genotype–environment interaction was simple. We found high genotype correlation in clone performance between environments (0.708), indicating the possibility of selecting the same clones for both study locations. Mean heritability between clones (0.724), coefficient of individual genetic variation (10.9 %), and relative variation (0.916), suggest the possibility of gains (estimated at 3.1 % for both sites together) by selecting clones with higher growth rates. A total of 15,196 SNPs were used to confirm parentage and test a genomic selection model for dbh. The predictive capacity was negative (-0.15) given the small population size (78 individuals). The most adaptable material among the tested study sites presented higher values for SNP heterozygosity. Thus, using molecular markers to identify clones responsive to environmental changes can act as a powerful tool in Eucalyptus breeding programs. The hybrid population showed greater adaptability than E. globulus for this region.
B.I. Aguiar, M.L.M. Freitas, Y.R. Tavares, E.V. Tambarussi, B. Zanatto, F.B. Gandara, J.G.Z. Paludeto, D.Y.B.O. Silva, J.R. Silva, M.L.T. Moraes, E.L. Longui, M. Zanata and A.M. Sebbenn
The Atlantic Forest has very high levels of biodiversity and is considered one of the most important and threatened biomes in the world. Balfourodendron riedelianum is one of the forest’s characteristic tree species that is currently under considered endangered due to timber extraction and forest fragmentation. With the goal of generating information that may contribute to the genetic conservation of B. riedelianum, genetic parameters are estimated for quantitative traits important for silviculture in a provenance and progeny test located in the Experimental Station of Luiz Antônio, São Paulo State, Brazil. The test was established in 1986 and consists of three provenances, from which open-pollinated seeds from 19 seed trees were collected. The following traits were evaluated at 32 years of age: diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H), stem height (SH), stem straightness (SS), and forking (FOR). The estimates were carried out using the REML/BLUP method. Significant genetic variation among progenies was detected for all traits (except SH) and between provenances for DBH. The coefficient of individual genetic variation (CVgi) ranged from 2.5 to 9.5 %. The mean heritability among progeny () was substantial for DBH (0.44) and FOR (0.36), enabling the selection of families with the highest DBH and lowest FOR for population improvement. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits were also found. We conclude that there is genetic variability in the population that can be exploited in future breeding programs and for the genetic conservation of the species.