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  • Author: A.M. Bratu x
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Abstract

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) is usually of synovial origin. It affects synovial membrane, serous bursae, and tendinous tunnels. The most common localizations are in the hands and forearms. Anatomopathological, GCTST is considered as being composed of a cellular fibroblastic stroma in which the tumor cells are distributed. This type of tumor is composed of a mononuclear complex and osteoclast-like giant multinucleated cells, similar to those found in the giant cell tumor at the bone level. Histologically, some authors consider that GCTST is a strictly benign tumor, consisting of welldefined multinucleated histiocytes admixed with eosinophils, lymphocytes and scattered spindleshaped cells, or hemosiderin deposits in its structure, and tumor cells do not have mitosis or atypia. Other authors consider that GCTST is a type of low-grade sarcoma; this entity was named “malignant fibrous histiocytoma, giant cell type” due to the histological similarity with malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The case of a female patient, suspected of giant cell tumor of the brachioradialis tendon sheath was presented. The MRI aspect of this tumor is not the typical one. The MRI examination consisted of a series of sequences, with T1 and T2 weighted images, fat suppression sequence, performed in all three planes, axial, sagittal, and coronal. Also, the examination was performed native, after the administration of intravenous contrast substance, when the 3D multiplanar sequences were performed. The final diagnosis was the post-operative anatomopathological examination, which confirmed that it was a giant cell tumor. We present this case for its less frequent localization - forearm, and the interest it might have in surgical treatment.

Abstract

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors, with many histological subtypes and three grades based on cellularity. They are the second most common primary malignant tumors of the bone. From the histopathologically proved clinical cases, we are reviewing the imaging semiology - size, type of calcifications, cortical breach, endosteal scalloping, permeative or moth eaten bone appearance, and revealing other differentiation elements like location, age, and pain. A special point is the frequent difficulty in distinguishing between enchondromas and low grade conventional chondrosarcomas - as the lesions are very similar both histologically and radiographically. The radiologist should point the area to aim on the biopsy - at areas that may harbor foci of high-grade tumor, such as the ones of endosteal scalloping, soft-tissue components, or diffusely enhancing areas with minimal mineralization. It is known that with cartilaginous tumors, histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen alone does not permit an accurate classification of the tumor. We emphasized the role of imaging in positive and differential diagnosis, management, and therapy of these bone tumors.

Abstract

Introduction. Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare entities of soft tissue cancers. Their incidence is low, of only 1% of the malignant tumors. In terms of localization, most of the STS affect the extremities, and their incidence is much higher in children than in adults. Material and method. The present paper is a retrospective study that includes tumors with lower limb localizations, including the bony pelvis, over a 3-year period (2013-2016). The study group consisted of 29 patients who, following the MRI examination, were diagnosed with softtissue tumors. Of the 29 patients, 17 patients had a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and an anatomopathological diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The location of the tumor, its characteristics, and the relationship with the adjacent anatomical structures were analyzed in all cases. Results. The ages of the final group of 17 patients ranged between 28 and 84 years, with female predominance. In terms of localization, one showed a muscle tumor in the pelvis, namely left oblique muscle, other cases being located in the thigh and knee. A special importance was given to the superficial and profound location. In 5 cases, the tumor was localized in subcutaneous fatty tissue, thus superficial. In terms of the contours of the tumor, well-defined margins were present in 11 cases, and poorly defined contour in 6 cases. Regarding the size, the leiomyosarcomas in our study had dimensions between 5.2 cm and 18 cm, and their structure was inhomogeneous, with the presence of necrosis and calcifications. Necrosis was found in 14 cases, and calcifications were present in 68%, being more frequent than necrosis. Except for the necrotic areas, the contrast enhancement was intense. Conclusions. Although the diagnosis is always histopathological, the MRI plays an important role in defining a precise localization and tumor characteristics.