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A.W. Bydałek, S. Biernat, W. Wołczyński and A. Bydałek

Abstract

Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek, A. Bydałek, W. Wołczyński and S. Biernat

Abstract

The article presents an outline of the new technology of pyrometallurgical processing of slag in the direct-to-blister process. The analysis is based on the example of the production process of KGHM Polish Copper SA. A new way of implementing the technology of recovery of copper from the flash furnace slag by means of different feedstocks has been proposed. The method of controlling the processes is another innovation discussed in the paper. The presented concept intensify the reduction reactions, using the Carbo-N-Ox method, of copper compounds to forms of metallic phases in the slag. The processes of coagulation are accelerated and the processes crystallization of metallic phases are under control.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek and A. Bydałek

Abstract

This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermo-physical and thermo-dynamical data. It was showed the brass refining with the many-carbide reagents introduced in to the slag. The paper presents the results of the structure analysis of the brass after carbide slag refining in the industrial conditions. The results of the macrostructure analysis have confirmed the argument on high reducing effectiveness of manganese and aluminium carbide used during CuZn39Pb2 alloy melting. The X-Ray microanalysis of the ingot cross-section has shown considerable discrepancies in the disposition of the inclusions. This effects showed on the great influence of reduction melting condition in to the brass melting.

Open access

W. Wołczyński and A.W. Bydałek

Abstract

The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-to-blister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek, W. Wołczyński, A. Bydałek, P. Schlafka and P. Kwapisiński

Abstract

The article discusses the structure of the slag in the liquid state, the properties and interactions within the slag. The analysis of structures occurring in slag suspension were presented with regard to differences in chemical composition in micro-areas. Two different mechanisms for formation of precipitates in Cu-Fe-Pb alloys during extraction were showed.

Open access

S. Biernat, A.W. Bydałek, W. Wołczyński and K. Najman

Abstract

This paper describes the subject of brasses and the method of their production from the secondary raw materials. It focuses on two very important aspects extremely important for today’s world. The first of them is the theme of rational management of materials, particularly metallic scrap. The second issue is the growing importance of products made of brass, which in recent times get also special recognition in medicine. This article presents a proposal for a methodology for calculating the metal charge for brasses of two or more components. It turns out that by using suitable mathematical calculations one can accurately determine the amount of metal charge to obtain a product having the desired chemical composition and desired mechanical properties. Mathematical calculations are also presented in the graphical form for the visualization of dependency and a better explanation of the accepted approach.

Open access

A. W. Bydałek, A. Bydałek, S. Biernat and P. Schlafka

Abstract

The analysis of possibilities of utilising waste materials as equivalents of substances stimulating in copper alloys refining processes was presented. The results of thermogravimetric investigations determining the refining ability of the slag with the selected waste materials from the aluminium production were discussed. The possibility of optimisation of the refining slag composition on the basis of the Slag- Prop software was indicated.

Open access

W. Wołczyński, A. Sypien, A. Tarasek and A. W. Bydałek

Abstract

The studied copper droplets suspension in the liquid slag came from the direct-to-blister technology developed in the KGHM - Polska Miedź S.A. plants. A treatment by the stimulators and reagents was performed in the conditions delivered / ensured by the BOLMET S.A., Wiechlice. These conditions were similar to those usually applied to the industrial process. Particularly, this treatment was similar, to some extent, to that known for the electric arc-furnace technology employed in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów. An effectiveness of the newly developed and patented complex chemical/reagent for the copper removal from slag was tested during the treatment. The effect of the liquid slag stirring on the copper droplets self-cleaning was also analysed. The performed test confirmed the effectiveness of the studied complex reagent in agglomeration, coagulation and sedimentation of the copper droplets.

Open access

W. Wołczyński, Z. Lipnicki, A.W. Bydałek and A.A. Ivanova

Abstract

Some metallographic studies performed on the basis of the massive forging steel static ingot, on its cross-section, allowed to reveal the following morphological zones: a/ columnar grains (treated as the austenite single crystals), b/ columnar into equiaxed grains transformation, c/ equiaxed grains at the ingot axis. These zones are reproduced theoretically by the numerical simulation. The simulation was based on the calculation of both temperature field in the solidifying large steel ingot and thermal gradient field obtained for the same boundary conditions. The detailed analysis of the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement shows that the zone of columnar grains begins to disappear at the first point of inflection and the equiaxed grains are formed exclusively at the second point of inflection of the analyzed curve. In the case of the continuously cast brass ingots three different morphologies are revealed: a/ columnar structure, b/ columnar and equiaxed structure with the CET, and c/ columnar structure with the single crystal formation at the ingot axis. Some forecasts of the temperature field are proposed for these three revealed morphologies. An analysis / forecast of the behavior of the operating point in the mold is delivered for the continuously cast ingot. A characteristic delay between some points of breakage of the temperature profile recorded at the operating point and analogous phenomena in the solidifying alloy is postulated.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek and P. Schlafka

Abstract

During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.