Karyotype analysis of males and females of two Viviparid species Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758 and V. contectus (Millet, 1813), shows differences in their karyotypes in the absence of heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes. This indicates an epigamous mechanism of sex determination.
Allozymic, karyological and morphological analyzes confirmed the presence of the Thick-clawed crayfish, Astacus pachypus (Rathke, 1837), in Ukraine. Th is rare species in Ukraine is found only in two small adjacent localities restricted to the Lower Dnieper. It is characterized by a unique set of chromosomes (2n = 116) and a distinct pool of allozymes, allowing, together with morphological features, to clearly distinguish it from the other three species of the Ukrainian fauna.
The existence on the territory of Ukraine of two sympatric widespread species definitely different by their chromosome number was proved based on the meiotic chromosome preparations. Besides the nominal species Pontastacus leptodactylus (Dana, 1852) with modal haploid chromosome number n = 93 we prove the existence of P. angulosus (Rathke, 1837) with n = 88.
Passive sensor systems are attractive for monitoring due to the absence of probing emissions. Two passive systems: an acoustic camera, manufactured by Brüel & Kjær (Sound and Vibration Measurement A/S) and a microwave radiometer are considered in the paper. The performance of these systems is carefully analyzed. The obtained results show the limitations of the acoustic camera in acoustic noise source localization caused by specific side lobes of a pattern of its microphone array. A suggestion how to avoid them is given. Application of microwave bistatic radiometer provides information about thermal electromagnetic radiation of objects in 3D spatial coordinates. The generated radiometric maps contain amplitude and phase information, which is suitable for estimation of displacements/vibration. The received results are applicable in nondestructive testing.
The work is devoted to fusion of radar and radiometer images. Noise waveform SAR generates radar images of reflective objects of its field of view. A bistatic radiometer with synthetic aperture estimates the thermal radio emissions of the objects along their angular coordinates and even range. The estimated brightness temperatures of rough and smooth surfaces are different, as well as the radar responses from them. Identification of the parameters of objects surfaces may be done using results of joint processing of images generated by both sensors. The optimum and quasi-optimum criteria for fusion of the images were obtained. The latter was experimentally checked. It approves the opportunity to fuse the images for further estimation of some parameters of objects surfaces. The results obtained may be used in environmental and security applications.