The interactive relationship between the root–knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the root-rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in a root–rot disease complex of chickpea (Cicer arietinum var. avrodhi) was studied in a net house. The present study was carried out in such a manner so that the pathogenic potential of M. incognita and M. phaseolina individually, simultaneously and sequentially could be monitored. The pathogens singly as well as in combination led to significant reduction in growth, yield, nutrient and biochemical parameters. Gaseous exchange parameters like photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were also reduced following infection of plants by the pathogens. However, maximum reduction was noticed in simultaneous inoculation with both pathogens. Sequential inoculation, where M. incognita preceded M. phaseolina by 15 days, was more damaging to the crop in comparison to that where M. phaseolina preceded M. incognita inoculation by 15 days. Infection by M. phaseolina caused a considerable reduction in the number of galls, egg–masses and nematode multiplication, with the highest reduction observed in plants simultaneously inoculated with the pathogens. Those plants also showed the highest disease severity in terms of percent root–rot. Thus, a manifold action plan to reduce the impact of the root-rot disease complex on chickpea crops has to be formulated.
M Buyuksimsek, M Togun, Kara I Oguz, A Bisgin, I Boga, M Tohumcuoglu, A Ogul, Yetisir A Evren, B Sahin, Sumbul H Erdem and C Mirili
Several studies demonstrated the utility of plasma-based cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ccfDNA) in determination of mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to report our results of next generation sequencing (NGS) using liquid biopsy in patients with NSCLC. Patients with advanced stage NSCLC were enrolled and their genomic profiling results were recorded. Next generation sequencing targeted panel includes 19 hot-spot genes. The plasma was separated from the peripheral blood sample and ccfDNAs were isolated for NGS. We performed genomic profiling in 100 patients (20 females and 80 males) with a median age of 59.3 (range 26-79). A second liquid biopsy was performed in eight patients who developed progressive disease after the first treatment. The study population had adenocarcinoma (AC) (n = 73), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 14), or NSCLC-NOS (not otherwise specified) (n = 13). In the SCC group, three of 14 patients had variants on EGFR and MET genes. In the AC and NSCLC-NOS groups, 39 out of 86 patients (45.3%) had variants. The most common one was in the EGFR gene (n = 27, 31.4%) including seven mutations related to drug resistance and two were polymorphisms. Three patients had both driver and resistance mutations (EGFR T790M, n = 2; KRAS exon 2 G12S and MET exon 14 E1012K, n = 1). Fifteen patients (17.4%) had an activating EGFR mutation and eight patients (9.3%) had variants in the KRAS gene. We reported our results regarding genomic profiling related to treatment using liquid biopsy in patients with NSCLC. Advantages of this method are the non invasiveness and reproducibility.