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A. Strojny-Nedza and K. Pietrzak

Abstract

Alumina/copper composites are used where high thermal conductivity, high absorption and dissipation of heat, high resistance to thermal fatigue and good frictional wear resistance are required. The properties of these composites depend on a number of factors including the content, shape and distribution of the ceramic phase, the method of their obtaining, as well as the conditions under which they are obtained. All these variables have influence on mentioned properties and, in consequence, on the future applications of the final material. The aim of this paper was to develop Cu-Al2O3 composites, processed using two techniques, namely sintering (of Cu /Al2O3 high-energy mixed powders) and tape casting (of slurry of the following composition: 1, 3 and 5 vol.% of Al2O3 phase; the remaining part: Cu). The compositions were determined taking into consideration the planned applications. The paper presents newly developed technologies, the results of both microstructure investigations as well as of the measurements of selected physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, wear resistance, thermal conductivity etc.) and contains the analysis of the influence of selected techniques and processing conditions on the properties and the interface morphology between ceramic and copper

Open access

A. Strojny-Nędza, K. Pietrzak, M. Teodorczyk, M. Basista, W. Węglewski and M. Chmielewski

Abstract

This paper describes the process of obtaining Cu-SiC-Cu systems by way of spark plasma sintering. A monocrystalline form of silicon carbide (6H-SiC type) was applied in the experiment. Additionally, silicon carbide samples were covered with a layer of tungsten and molybdenum using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Microstructural examinations and thermal properties measurements were performed. A special attention was put to the metal-ceramic interface. During annealing at a high temperature, copper reacts with silicon carbide. To prevent the decomposition of silicon carbide two types of coating (tungsten and molybdenum) were applied. The effect of covering SiC with the aforementioned elements on the composite’s thermal conductivity was analyzed. Results were compared with the numerical modelling of heat transfer in Cu-SiC-Cu systems. Certain possible reasons behind differences in measurements and modelling results were discussed.

Open access

M. Chmielewski, J. Dutkiewicz, D. Kalinski, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, K. Pietrzak and A. Strojny-Nedza

Brittleness is the main technical limitation on a wide use of advanced ceramic materials. To overcome this problem, ceramic-metal composites are commonly applied. A principal advantage of ceramic-metal composite materials is their higher resistance to brittle fracture. An increase of fracture toughness depends on the type, amount, size and shape of a metallic component. The metallic phase can additionally modify physical, mechanical and thermal properties of materials.

The results of experiments concerning a manufacturing process of Mo-Al2O3 composite materials obtained by the hot pressing method were presented. Two powder mixtures with different volume fraction of aluminium oxide were prepared in a planetary ball mill. The hot pressing process allowed to obtain well-densified metal matrix composites (~99% of a theoretical density). Microstructural observations of sinters were conducted using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Very stable bonding between metal and ceramic grains was observed. Complex investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of obtained molybdenum-alumina composite materials seem to be very promising from an application point of view.

Open access

M. Chmielewski, K. Pietrzak, A. Strojny-Nędza, D. Jarząbek and S. Nosewicz

Abstract

This paper analyses the technological aspects of the interface formation in the copper-silicon carbide composite and its effect on the material’s microstructure and properties. Cu-SiC composites with two different volume content of ceramic reinforcement were fabricated by hot pressing (HP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. In order to protect SiC surface from its decomposition, the powder was coated with a thin tungsten layer using plasma vapour deposition (PVD) method. Microstructural analyses provided by scanning electron microscopy revealed the significant differences at metal-ceramic interface. Adhesion force and fracture strength of the interface between SiC particles and copper matrix were measured. Thermal conductivity of composites was determined using laser flash method. The obtained results are discussed with reference to changes in the area of metal-ceramic boundary.

Open access

K. Pietrzak, W. Olesinska, D. Kalinski and A. Strojny-Nedza

Abstract

The effect of phase transformations induced in the surface layer of alumina ceramics during its direct joining with copper activated with oxygen or titanium on the mechanical strength of the ceramic/copper joints was examined. The materials used in the experiments were an alumina single crystal, alumina ceramics (97.5 wt% Al2O3), the cermet mixtures: Cu-Cu2O with 10-50 wt% of Cu2O, copper with 5 wt% of Ti, and copper with 5 wt% of Ti and 10 wt% of Ag. The microstructure of the transition layer was examined by the X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscopy method (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The mechanical strength of the joints was measured using the three-point bending method. The amount of oxygen optimal for the joining process was determined. It has been demonstrated that the cohesion of the joints depends not only on the formation of the individual phases but also, or even primarily, on the microstructure of the transition layer formed between them.

Open access

K. Pietrzak, A. Gładki, K. Frydman, D. Wójcik-Grzybek, A. Strojny-Nędza and T. Wejrzanowski

Abstract

The main current of publication is focused around the issues and problems associated with the formation of composite materials with Cu matrix and reinforcing phases in the various carbon nanoforms. The core of the research has been focused on thermal conductivity of these composites types. This parameter globally reflects the state of the structure, quality of raw materials and the technology used during the formation of composite materials. Vanishingly low affinity of copper for carbon, multilayered forms of graphene, the existence of critical values of graphene volume in the composite are not conducive to the classic procedures of composites designing. As a result, the expected, significant increase in thermal conductivity of composites is not greater than for pure copper matrix. Present paper especially includes: (i) data of obtaining procedure of copper/graphene mixtures, (ii) data of sintering process, (iii) the results of structure investigations and of thermal properties. Structural analysis revealed the homogenous distribution of graphene in copper matrix, the thermal analysis indicate the existence of carbon phase critical concentration, where improvement of thermal diffusivity to pure copper can occur.