Industrial robots are increasingly widely used in industrial metallurgical processes, their main aim being greater effectiveness of the process and higher precision of the tasks performed. The characteristic feature of numerous metallurgical processes, however, is the occurrence of strong electromagnetic fields. This paper presents the assessment of the accuracy of operation of an industrial robot in electromagnetic environment. The research encompassed the measurements of temperature of selected robot components and also the measurements of accuracy of the tasks performed. Additionally, some numerical simulations were carried out for determining the Joule losses produced in particular elements of the robot. The object of the research was an induction heater working with the industrial frequency. The numerical computations were performed by the code Flux 3D.
The paper presents possibilities of controlling temperature field distribution in inductively heated charge. The change of its distribution was obtained using the sequential one-, two-, and three-frequency heating. The study was conducted as a multi-variant computer simulation of hard coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields. For the analysis, a professional calculation software package utilizing the finite element method, Flux 3D, was used. The problem of obtaining an appropriate temperature distribution in the heated charge of a complex shape is very important in many practical applications. A typical example is hardening of gear wheels. For such an application, it is necessary to obtain (on the surface and at a desired depth) an uniform temperature distribution on the tooth face, top land and bottom land of the gear. The obtained temperature should have proper distribution and value. Such a distribution is very difficult to achieve.
A. Smalcerz, B. Oleksiak and G. Siwiec
A big interest in application of cold crucible furnace (CCF) for industrial, particularly metallurgical, processes has been observed in recent years. They are mainly utilised for melting of metal, glass and other materials. Analyses of processes that occur in such devices are performed; however, computer modelling is rarely applied. As a precise determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is essential for a proper analysis of processes in furnaces with cold crucibles, a complex 3D model development is necessary. In the paper, effects of a crucible design and current frequency on the efficiency of the induction furnace with cold crucible are presented. Numerical calculations were performed with the use of the Flux 3D professional software.
J. Barglik, A. Smalcerz, A. Smagór and P. Paszek
The paper presents analysis of surface induction hardening of a cylindrical element made of steel 38Mn6. The mathematical model of the non-stationary process is elaborated. Calculations of coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields are provided by means of the Flux 2D software. Computations are compared with the measurements realized at the laboratory stand located in the Silesian University of Technology. The expected hardness distribution within the surface layer is noticed.
A. Smalcerz, J. Barglik, D. Kuc, K. Ducki and S. Wasiński
The paper deals with the influence of induction surface hardening on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cylindrical elements made of steel 38Mn6. The first stage was based on computer simulation of the induction hardening process. The second stage - experiments were provided on laboratory stand for induction surface hardening located at the Silesian University of Technology. Microstructure tests were conducted on light and scanning microscopes. The hardness penetration pattern and thickness of hardened layer were marked. It was found that due to properly chosen parameters of the process, the appropriate properties and thickness of hardened layer were achieved.
L. Blacha, R. Burdzik, A. Smalcerz and T. Matuła
In the paper, results of the study on manganese evaporation from the OT4 alloy are presented. In the experiments, the effects of pressure on the manganese evaporation kinetics and the stages that limit the evaporation rate were investigated. It was demonstrated that the rate of manganese evaporation from the alloy increased with pressure reduction in the system. When the pressure decreases from 1000 Pa to 10 Pa, the value of overall mass transfer kMn increases from 3.9*10-6 ms-1 to 208.4*10-6 ms-1. At the same time, the manganese fraction in the alloy decreased from 1.49% mass to 0.045% mass. Within the whole pressure range, the analysed evaporation process is diffusion-controlled. For pressures above 50 Pa, the determining stage is transfer in the gaseous phase, while for pressures below 50 Pa, it is transfer in the liquid phase.
G. Siwiec, B. Oleksiak, A. Smalcerz and J. Wieczorek
In the paper, results of surface tension measurements with regard to liquid copper-silver alloys with the maximum silver content of 40 % mass Ag are presented. The measurements were performed at 1373-1573 K with the use of the sessile drop method. In the study, a high-temperature microscope, coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with the software designed for experiment recording and picture analysing, was applied. In order to determine surface tension values, the least square estimation of the parameters of the system of differential equations, describing the shape of a liquid sessile drop, was used.
R. Burdzik, Ł. Konieczny, Z. Stanik, P. Folęga, A. Smalcerz and A. Lisiecki
The paper provides an analysis of the reasons for excessive wear of the camshafts system components based on models developed to describe the impact of selected material, technological and operational factors. The subject of the research was wear of camshaft cams studied in accordance with results of operation tests. Based on the said tests, the dependence of wear intensity of cams from their angular position was established. The respective calculation results enabled the function of cam fallibility to be determined.